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16 Cards in this Set

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Gazzaniga
-The split brain in man
-Can 2 halves of a brain funciton independently?
-studied split brained individuals to determine this
-Tests for Cognitive Capabilities:
1)Visual abilities 2)Tactile Stimulation
3)Auditory
-Intelligence, personaliy, emotional reactions were unchanged,
-2 different brains with their own abilities
Rosenzweig, Bennett, Diamond
More Experience=Bigger Brain?
-Rats in stimulating environment develop different brain growth and chemistry
-3 groups: lab cage, enriched environment, impoverished environment
-Enriched Rats-
-heavier and thicker cortex
-greater activity of nervous system
-larger neurons
-greater RNA to DNA ratios
-50% larger synapses
-weight of cortex increases, rest of brain changes little
-Humans - more skill and abilitie=more complex and heavier brains
-Mozart Effect
Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, Tellegen
Are You a Natural- sources of human psychological differences
-Study of twins reared apart or together
-Genetic factors account for most human characteristics
-Monozygotic twins raised apart grew up to be very similar in appearance, basic psychology and personality
-Human characteristics are determined by some combination of genetic and environmental influences
-Genetics mold environments
-Big 5 characteristics are more genetic
-40%personality, 50% intelligence are genetic
Gibson and Walk
Visual Cliff
-Depth perception and avoidance of drop off=biological not experience
-very few infants would crawl off cliff
-ability of animals to perceive depth develops in relation to when the species needed the skill for survival
-cannot be sure if skill is innate because babies were at least 6 months old so had experience
-Social Referencing - nonverbal communication used to determine behavior or cues from others
-Depth perception is present at birth
-Fear of falling and avoidance of danger is learned
Turnbull
What you see is what you've learned
-Pygmies
-Perceptual Constancies - ability to perceive distant objects as normal size
-Figure-Ground - divide sensations into these
-Perceptual constancies are learned from experience and influenced by culture and environment
-No definite answer
Aserinsky and Kleitman
REM Sleep and Deprivation
-differentiated between REM and NREM
-used sleep awakening and interrogation--discovered that we dream during REM sleep
-periods of eye movement associated with dreaming
Dement-is REM natural or vital
-dream deprivation
-REM Rebound-REM deprivation produces excessive REM sleep later to make up for deprivation
-All animals go through REM
Hobson and McCarley
Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
-Dreams are nothing more than your attempts to interpret random electrical impulses produced automatically in the brain during REM
-Brain stem is periodically activated and produces electrical impulses
-it produces meaningless bursts of neural static
-dreams are triggered automatically by basic physiological processes and there is no censor distorting true meaning to protect you from unconscious wishes
-brain becomes activated during REM and generates its own original info
-REM causes dreaming, instead of dreams producing REM
Spanos
Hypnotic Behavior-cognitive, social and psychological perspective
-behavior during hypnosis is voluntary-results from increased motivation
-Hypnotists create expectations in subjects and suggests that behavior is involuntary
-not an altered state of consciousness
-2 reasons people believe it is:
1) Believe behavior is caused by something other than the self which makes it seem like its involuntary
2) Creates expectations, subjec then acts in ways consistent with the expectations
-Hypnotic Behaviors-result of highly motivated, goal directed social behavior
Pavlov
Classical Conditioning
-Unconditioned Reflexes-inborn, automatic, require no learning
--formed by unconditioned stimulus(UCS) and unconditioned response(UCR)
-Conditioned Reflexes-acquire through experience and learning
--conditioned stimulus(CS) and conditioned response (CR)
-Helps explain behaviors, phobias, taste aversion, source of emotions
-Focuses on reflexive behaviors-involuntary
Watson and Rayner
Conidtioned Emotional Responses
-Behaviorism-All behavior is a product of learning
-Little Albert-conditioned to fear rat-fear generalized to similar objects
-Goals:
1. All behavior stems from learning and conditioning
2. The Freudian concept of psychology was wrong
Skinner
Pigeons
Operant Conditioning
-Reinforcers-behaviors repeated
--positive-something good is added
--negative-something bad taken away
-Consequences-behavior less likely to be repeated
-If behavior's been reinforced and reinforcement is withdrawn, behavior is less likely to be repeated-Extinction
-If behavior is reinforced once in awhile its hard to distinguish because expectation stays high that superstitious behavior might work to gain reinforcer
Bandura, Ross, and Ross
Aggression and Modeling
-Social Learning Theory-learning is primary factor in the development of personality, learning occurs through social interaction
-Bobo Doll Study
-children exposed to violence immitated exact behavior
-How specific behaviors are learned through observation and immitation without any reinforcement
Rosenthal and Jacobson
Teacher's Expectancy-determinants of IQ
-Expectancy Effect-Pygmalian Effect
-when teachers expected greater intellectual growth from student, student had greater improvement
-Effect very strong in younger children
-Self-fulfilling prophecy
Gardner
Multiple Intelligences
-different parts of brain are responsible for different intelligences
-8 criteria to be considered a type of intelligence
-8 types of intelligence
1. Linguistic
2. Musical
3. Logical-mathematical
4. Spatial
5. Bodily-kinesthetic
6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalist
Tolman
Cognitive Maps
-learning theorist-Cognitive-Behaviorism
-studied internal processes and observable stimuli and responses-internal cognitive processes could be objectivelyt and scientifically inferred from observable behavior
-Rats ran mazes:
1. Laten Learning
2. Spatial orientation
-Distinguished narrow strip maps and broad comprehensive maps
Loftus
Leading Questions and Eye Witness
-power of presuppositions to alter persons memory
-Presupposition-condition that must be true in order for a question to make sense
-new info causes original memory to be reconstructed