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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Recurring Issues
1)Mind-Body Problem
-a)Monism-one reality -
--Materialism-reality is physical matter - no soul
--Mentalism-reality is in mind
-b)Dualism-mind and body exist
--Interactionism-if both are present, they're seperate but they interact or communicate with each other
--Parallelism-they're seperate and have no interaction
Recurring Issues
2)Reductionism vs. Nonreductionism
1.Reductionism-can be broken down to smaller ones-more basic (large to small)
2.Nonreductionism-phenomenon should stand on its own-shouldn't break things down-recognize them for their whole
Recurring Issues
3)Nature vs. Nurture
Pythagoras
-noted relationship between #'s and music
-founder of mystical cult-
-women should be treated equal-valued femininity
-Pythagorean Theorem
Heraclitus
-Chaos Theory-complex systems create unpredictable and random events that have an order of their own (good way to thinking of humans and behavior-nothing is stable-always changing - can never go back to what was)
Permenides
-what we experience in the world is invalid
-sensations aren't reality
--physical matter doesn't change, sensations & perceptions change
-Rationalism-use reason to find truth
Zeno
-believed we should not trust our senses
-developed paradoxes
Democritus
-Atomistic Approach-university is made up of tiny indivisible particles constantly in motion
--Human mind is collection of atoms-->Can trust our senses -
-senses caused by atoms moving and touching the sense organs
-Determinist-behavior of atoms is lawful and organized
-Reductionism
Protagoras
-Man is the measure of all things
--Knowledge comes from senses--But senses are incomplete-don't have enough capabilities to know everything--No ultimate truth but only what we're capable of knowing or experiencing
-Relativism-theory that conceptions ot truth and moral values are not absolute, but are relative to their possessors
Socrates
-Epistemiology-branch of philosophy interested in origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge
--Rationalism-search for knowledge through reasnoning
--people should make themselves as good as possible through knowledge
-Socratic Method-helped people tease out truths they already know-they are inside of them already
Plato
Socrates Student
-Knowledge from within-will come from recolleciton
-Theory of Forms-there are universal forms or ideas that underlie what we know through our senses
--structure/world revealed through rational thought
--forms are real and permanent
--senses can be corrupt
1.World of Knowledge-forms, stable
2.World of Opinion-physical being, senses, changing, inconsistent
-Rationalist
-Assumed hereditary basis for human characteristics and intelligence
-Deductive reasoning-from known to unknown
Aristotle
Platos Student
-Empiricist-all concepts derived from sensory experience
-Used deductive and inductive reasoning
-Scientific method and observation
-Theory of Causes:Material, Formal, Efficient, Final
1)Material-what is it made of
2)Formal-What is it-essence or form
3)Efficient-Who made/created it
4)Final-what is its purpose
-Theology-everything is directed toward a definite or final purpose except the unmoved mover(God)
-Catharsis
-Animal classification scheme
-Psyche/Mind is in heart
Ladder of creation
--vegetative psyche\(nutritive)-Plants
--sensitive psyche-animals & humans
--rational psyche-humans-permits us to think and reason
-Mind is blank slate
-Principles of Association-believed memories result from 3 associative processes
1.Similarity
2.Contrast
3.Contiguity
1.Frequency
2.Ease
Alcmaeon
-Anatomist-studied body by dissection
-Health was matter of harmony and balance between opposites
-disease results from inbalance
Hippocrates
-Father of medicine-diseaes is natural
-Mind is in brain
-Brain controls opposite side of body
-Perspectives on epilepsy
-Theory of Humors-black & yellow bile, blood, phlegm
--imbalance results in sickness
--treat with natural interventions
-Theories on mental disorders
-Free medicine from church
Galen
-Mind in the brain confirmed via dissections
--Identified 12 cranial nerves and several brain structures
-Related Hippocrates theory of humors to personality theory
-Predecessory of physiological psychology
Other Schools of Thought
1)Skepticism

2)Cynicism

3)Stoicism-world functions to divine plan-no accidents-indifference and apathy
Neoplatonism
school of thought that tried to combine Plato's views with concepts from Christianity, Judaism, and Eastern Mysticism
St. Augustine
-believed you can look at consciousness from within
-God gives us freedom of choice
-without reason, faith is incomplete
St. Anselm
-can reason about god without faith
-Scholasticism-system of thought based on Aristotlelian logic and theology
-Ontological Argument-god is greates, if god didn't exist then something greater can be thought, hence god must exist
St. Thomas Aquinas
-Reason and faith are completely compatible
-Faith and reason can be considered completely independently
Nicholas Copernicus
-Heliocentric center of universe-sun is at center of universe
Giordano Bruno
-extended Copernicus's system to include infinite # of suns, each with their own universe
-stood at trial for 8 years and eventually burned at steak
Galileo Galilei
-Perfected refractory tellescope in Holland
-used telescope to confirm heliocentric view of universe
-Formulated Law of Free Fall-speed is proportional to time of fall
-2 Kinds of Qualities
1)Primary Qualities-exist in physical substance-shape, form...
2)Seconday Qualities-exist in observer, not in object-smell, taste, color...
Isaac Newton
-refracted light rays that converge into whiteness
-Gravity
-universe designed by god who is the great watchmaker
William Harvey
-used experimental methods to study the heart-Biology in Science
-Heart is simply a pump-disconfirmed beliefs that it creates the blood
Rene Descartes
-"I think therefore I am"-prove existence
-claimed dualism of mind and body
-doubted existence of all things unless they were clear and distinct to him
-Did Not Doubt:Self, God, External World
-God was perfect..So he exists
-Mind influences body in pineal gland
-Ideas in the Mind:
1.Innate Ideas-come in certainty
2.Derived Ideas-come from experience-get stored
-6 Primary Passions: wonder, love, hate, desire, joy, sadness
--derived from body and passively experienced by brain
-animals don't have minds, incapable of language or self-awareness - they're machines
-described retinal images as inverted
-described reflex actions-automatic and learned
-how muscles move
Baruch Spinoza
-believed we could know reality by using methods of geometry
-Pantheism-belief that god is everything and everything is god
-mind and body are 1 in the same-double aspectism
-behavior is predetermined, but morality comes with improving our knowledge
-Levels of Knowledge:
1.Intuition-highest level-aware of nature and place in world
2.Reason-scientific method/knowledge-abstract but can deduce
3.Imagination-most basic-knowledge we get from senses
Gottfried Willhelm von Leibniz
-Occasionalism-dualistic approach to mind-body problem with God as source of mind-body interaction
-Mind and body are same substance-2 parallel clocks-operate independently-divine interaction comes from god
-published on inferential and differential calculus
-thought nature, humans, and god needed to be seperate, but are 1 substance
-Mind isn't blank slate--Mind is veined marble
--veins=predispositions-genetic and inborn tendencies-experience allows veins to emerge
-Monads-infinite # of elements composing all being and activity
--indestructable, uncreatable, unchangeable
--4 kinds of Monads
1)Supreme-God-creator of all Monads-all knowing
2)Rational-Human soul
3)Sentient-Animals-nonhuman-no consciousness-simple perceptions
4)Simple-components of organisms-inorganic matter
--pre-established harmony
--psychophysical parallelism-mind and body exist and maintain parallel courses without interacting
-Levels of Consciousness
--petite perceptions-never reach consciousness-reflexes
Julien de La Mettrie
-Argued people are machines
-actions attributed to mechanistic principles
-only difference from animals is we're complex machines
-we seek pleasure and avoid pain
-challenged assumption that only humans acquire and use language
Thomas Hobbes
-whole world is bodies and motion
--denied existence of god-didn't have a body so no physical aspect
-Mind and body are 1 -Monistic Materialism
-Epiphenomenalism-mind-body position that says brains activity produces mind as a byproduct
-rejected innate ideas-all knowledge comes from sensory experience
-memory is simply the decay of sensory experience
John Locke
-Essay concerning human understanding
-ideas are within the mind, not a product of the brain
-Ideas generated from experience
--born a blank slate or Tabula Rasa-Born white paper, expieriences add the writing
-sensations and reflections are 2 sources of our ideas
-distinction between appearances(secondary qualities-in experience), and reality(primary qualities-inherent-)
1)Intuitive Knowledge-based on experience-mind can perceive agreement and disagreement based on the event
2)Demonstrative Knowledge-new idea emerges or provides agreement/disagreement and explains-info in environment
3)Sensitive Knowledge-difficult to verify or prove
4)Faith and Opinion-everything we think we know but cannot verify
George Berkeley
-extended Locke's view
-everything essentially is a secondary quality-exists while we're experiencing it
-things in external world exist only while we're experiencing it
-God is always perceiving
-Immaterialism or Subjective Idealsim-Subjective ideas are reality as long as we're experiencing them
-Depth perception-acquire this through experience
1.Size
2.Overlap
David Hume
-goal was to seperate psychology from philosophy
-1st ideas directly related to psyc
-all the minds contents come from experience through impressions
--impressions-lively perceptions(sensations)
---are the things we know
---ideas are faint copies of impressions
--can combine impressions to find things that don't exist
--Association of ideas-don't experience cause and effect but impose it; resemblance:similarity, contiguity:close in space, cause and effect:timing
-Habit is ultimate principle
-empiricst-broke things down
Associationism
Formed rules for the association of ideas in the mind
David Hartley
-observations of man, his frame, his duty, and his expectations (book)
-vibrations result in manifestations of ideas
--continue after the sensory experience has quit to produce afterimages
--positive afterimages-associated through contiguity-basis for all psyc
-forerunner of physiological psychology
-father of british associationism
James Mill
-1st proponent of birth control
-basic elements of the mind were sensations and ideas
-added to Aristotles 5 senses:
1.Muscular Sensation
2.Sensations of disorganization in any body part(itching, burning...)
3.Sensations from alimentary canal (nausea, seasickness)
-primary elements of consciousness-ideas are copies of sensations-ideas remain after sensation is gone-equal in strength
-2 principles of association of ideas: 1)Frequency 2)Vividness
-ideas are associated in trains of thought
-duplex ideas result from uniting 2 or more complex ideas through association-->Mental Compounding
Mary Wollstonecraft
-1st women
-challenged idea that men and women have different special natures
-have common substance that manifested depending on circumstance and opportunity
-Published "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" 1792
John Stuart Mill
-Accepted and extended Wollstonecraft's vision of womens rights
-"The Subjection of Women"
-treatment of women stifled their ability to live to full potential
-system of logic- mind studied as science
-impressions and ideas
--added intensity to Hume's principles of association (like vividness)
-mental chemistry-mind is active, not just adding...always changing..
Alexander Bain
-mind and body working in parallel
-development of voluntary(muscle) behavior
-organic sense
-association of ideas based on trial and error
-habit develop as result of repeated pleasurable events
-successful and pleasurable behavior are repeated--vice versa
--law of effect
-Founded Journal Mind-1st psyc journal
Immanuel Kant
-critique of Pure Reason - causality is inherent-response to all we know comes from senses
-part of us, inherent structure
-mind takes sensations and coordinates them into perceptions then into knowledge
-12 categories of innate thoughts that shape experiences
-physiological techniques to measure aspects of the mind
-2 Worlds
1)Nominal World-experience of outside world-filtered through consciousness
2)Phenomenal World-inner world, conceptions of outside world-all we know-reflects filtered nominal world
Johannes Muller
-Handbook of human physiology
-Doctrine of specific nerve energies
--We're aware only of energy and activity of nerves, not of the external world
-Each nerve has their own contribution to the mind
Hermann von Helmholtz
-greates scientist of 19th century
-Measure Speed of Nerve Impulses
-Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision:
--3 different sets of fibers in eye: Red, Green, and Blue
-Place Theory of Pitch Perception
Ernest Weber
-Interested in touch and sense of movement or position of body parts
-proff of anatomy and physiology
-touch is more than 1 sense-combo of pressure, temp, locality
-sensations vary by quality & intensity
-2pt threshold - Measure of body's sensitivity to two simultaneous touches
-Just Noticeable Difference - amount that a comparable stimulus must differ from standard stimulus in order to be reliably detected as different (weight)
Gustav Theodor Fechner
-psychophysics - what are elements between space and physical world - psychophysics approach - measurement
-Gave Weber's ratios mathematical form
-Method of Limits - used to determine threshold for detection
-Average intensity at which judgment change is called the detection threshold
-theorized about corpus callosum
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
General
Internal perceptions
-Research with Robert Bunsen
-self experimentaiton
-goal was to establish experiemental psychology as a science
-established 1st psyc lab
-established 1st psyc journal-Philisophical Studies
-Mind is collection of conscious experiences
--interaction of mind and world = consciousness
--experienced directly or indirectly
--Immediate Experiences - experienced directly-sensaitons, not filtered-worthy of study
-Mediated Experiences - experienced indirectly-
-Internal Perceptions - 5 elements
1)Observer needs to be properly trained to do report on immediately experience
2)Observer needs to know when stimulus is introduced
3)Observer must be extremely attentive
4)Stimulus must be presented multiiple times (repetition)
5)Experimental condition should be varied systematically to enhance generality of the observations (generalization)
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
Reaction Time
-Reaction Time-time it takes for subject to react to a predetermined stimulus with a predetermined movement
-Mental Chronometry-time taken by mind to perform different mental acts
-3 mental acts involved in simple RT
1. Apprehension-sensory stimulus enters counsciousness
2. Apperception-attention focused on sensory impression
3. Voluntary Behavior-release of response
--Creative Synthesis-ideas combined in novel ways as a result of focused attention (apperception)
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
3-d theory
3-D Theory of Feelings
-Arousing vs. Subduing
-Pleasurable vs. Unpleasurable
-Strain vs. Relaxation
-all feelings are combinations of these 3
-Method of Expresison-associate bodily sensations with these emotions
Edward Titchener
-Structural Psyc-determining the elements that make up the structure of the mind
--goal to catalog the elements of consciousness-the structure
-Disagreed with Wundt's immediate and mediated experience
-All human knowledge comes from experience, experience is independent from the person - we all experience things in the same way but the physical reality is different
-Analytical & Anatmoical Introspection
-3 Elements of Consciousness
1. Sensations-elements of perceptions
2. Images-elements of ideas
3. Affections/Feelings-elements of emotions
Margaret Floy Washburn
worked under Titchener
-1st american women to get PhD
-Dissertation: Influence of Visual Imagery in Judgment
-1908-published Animal Mind-1st comparative psyc text
-2nd women president of APA
Hugo Munsterberg
-Published Voluntary Action
-muscular sensations are basis of awareness and consciousness
-Introspection is only awareness of the sensations
-Founder of Applied Psyc
-Forensic Psyc
-Industrial psyc
-Ergonomics-designing equipment that can be more efficiently used by humans
-mental illness has physiloigcal basis
-Psychiatry: treatment of mental disease
-Psychotherapy: practice of treating the sick by influencing mental life
Titchener vs. Munsterberg
Similarities
Mentor
- both worked under Wundt

Residence
-brough psychology to US

Labs
-experimental labs at major universities
Titchener vs. Munsterberg
Differences
Defining Psychology
-Titchener - science is studying mind and basic structures or elements
-Munsterberg-refused to define psychology-not sufficiently inclusive

Methods of Study
-Titchener-Introspection
-Munsterberg-Functionalism

Applied Psychology
-Titchener-should be studied in lab
-Munsterberg-study in real world

Legacy
-Tichener-structuralism died after him yet more room in history books
-Munsterberg-still has impact on modern psych in forensic, clinical, industrial
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Memory
-1st systematic experimental investigation of memory
-performed studies on himself
-developed nonsense syllables
-studied relationship between material to be memorized and time and effort required to learn it
-Overlearning
-curve of forgetting
-Memory of: Spaced vs. Massed, part vs. Whole, Active vs. Passive learning
-developed analogies and completions
Franz Brentano
-Psychology from an emprical standpoint
-Psyc is emprical because its based on experience
-mental acts can be observed in memory and therefore can be studied quietly and empirically
-His Psychology of Mental Acts was predecessor of functional psyc
-Truth is determined by careful logic and examination
-Psychology wouldn't change beause empirical observations and logic don't change either
-Act Psyc - study of mental actions and processes - 3 Classes of Mental Acts: Ideating, Judging, Loving vs. hating
-No introspection--impossible to make observations of consciousness - study mental acts in memory
Carl Stumpf
-Distinguished between phenomena and mental functions
-Phenomenology-study of phenomena (tones, colors, images...)
-Tone Psyc-phenomenology of tones
-Cofounded Society for Child Psyc
--studied musical development of child prodigies
-Observe children rather than using questionnares
-Debunking of:
-machine to change photos of sound waves into sounds
- Clever Hans-horse with math abilities