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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Max Wertheimer
- sought to understand psychological origins of movement
- Phi Phenomenon - lights that are seperated by intervals appear to move from 1 position to another
- Application of 4 Principles of Gestalt Theory
1) Holistic Thinking - whole is more important than sum of its parts
2) Phenomenological Basis - phenomena are subject of psyc
3) Methodology - experiment with small number of subjects
4) Isomorphism - psychological processes are directly related to biological processes
- Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement (1912)- beginning of Gestalt Psyc
Gestalt Principles
- Our perceptions are active, lively and organized
- Our perceptions of the everyday world are organized actively into coherent wholes
* Similarity - group similar things
* Proximity - things that are close are grouped together
* Closed to Good Gestalts - fill in incomplete parts to make whole
- Perceptual Experiences
* Dynamic, not static
* Organized, not chaotic
* Predictable, not erratic
Bluma Vul'Fovna Zeigarnik
Zeigarnik Effect - idea that when tasks are interrupted before completion, they lack closure, this are easier to recall
Wolfgang Kohler
Experiment of Insight and Learning
- Insight Learning - based on perceptual reconstructing of problem
* Ability to switch to different indirect approach to learn if direct way is blocked
* See or perceive solution - 'aha'
* Doesnt depend on rewards
* Positive transfer from 1 problem to another
- Mentality of Apes - book
- Observations of learning, memory, emotions of animals
- stimulus as a whole
- animal memory
- emotional reactions arent acquired through experience - not learned
Kurt Lewin
- The War Landscape (1917) -
--Described depersonalization and dehumanization of enemy is the embodiment of all evil
-We produce to live, not live to produce
- Topological Psychology - shows persons seperation from rest of world
- Studied child's life space - how childs perceptions of space change
- Detour Problems
1) Have to move in opposite direction of a goal
2) Have to choose between 2 desirables
3) Approach and avoidance vectors - pros and cons, positives and negatives
4) 2 negative valences - both bad
- Effort makes goal more attractive
- Dedifferentiation Hypothesis - in conditions of frustration, regression and aggression emerge
- Effects of authoritarian and democratic leadership styles on childs behavior
--Lassie Faire-problematic
- Action research in industrial setting
- Discrimination in hiring and employment
- Segregated and integrated housing and racial attitudes
- Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors
Tamara Dembo
- Study origin and development of anger in a setting where it could be observed and assessed
- Founder of the field of Rehabilitation Psychology
--Found that in adjustment, many felt devalued and depersonalized
--Disabilities are in the environment, not in the person
Phillipe Pinel
Improved the Bicetre Asylum
- Need to improve conditions of treatment
* unchained patients
* seperated patients by severity
* least restrictive environment
* 1st person to maintain patients histories - kept stats on care rates
William Tuke
- Founded the York Retreat - more like a farm than a prison
- Model for institutions
Benjamin Rush
- Father of American Psychiatry - 1st Psychiatrist
- Penn Hostpital
- Argued for humane treatment of mentally ill in US
- Poor choice of treatment methods - used blood letting a lot
Dorothea Lynde Dix
- Campaign to improve conditions of mentally ill
- Recommendations provoked change
- Given credit for establishing 30 mental hostpitals
Emil Kraepelin
- Wundt's Student
- Published list of mental disorders based on causes, brain involvement, symptoms, treatment (1883) (Dementia, paranoia, depression, neurosis)
- Some mental disorders are incurable because they're the result of constitutional factors - they're part of the person
Eugen Bleulen
Dementia Praecox could be successfully treated
- Now called Schizophrenia
Lightner Witmer
Clinical & School
- 1st special ed courses
- developed techniques to work with "mentally defective, clinically disturbed"
- 1896-Founded worlds 1st Psychology Clinic - Pennsylvenia
- Defined clinical psychology in journal "Psychology Clinic"
- Established residential school for the care and treatment of mentally retarded and troubled children
- Clinical Psyc should be highly research oriented & allied with basic psyc--> Treatment for mental illness should be based on scientific findings
- Founder of Clinical Psyc?
Egas Moniz
Drilled holes into skulls of mental patients
- Prefrontal Leuctomy
- Won Nobel Prize
Walter Freeman
- Lobtomies in US accepted worldwide - 3500 performed
- responsible for worldwide acceptance of Psychosurgery for mental illness
Manfred Joshua Sakel
Schizophrenics improved after insulin induced coma - 80%
Joseph Von Meduna
Used drugs to induce/produce convulsions
- people with epilepsy rarely have Schizophrenia
Ugo Cerletti & Lucio Bini
Introduced electrical shock 1938
- Started with Schizophrenia--> Later effective for depression
Franz Anton Mesmer
Magnetic Cures for sickness and disease
- Mesmerism
James Esdaile
Mesmerized before surgery - successful with 3000
James Braid
Hypnosis - form of sleep induced by suggestion and narrowing of attention
- developed and used scientifically
Jean-Martin Charcot
Opened french hypnosis clinic where freud went to be trained
Soren Kierkegaard
- Association between psychopathology and sin
- Founder of existentialism - philosophy that stresses the isolation of the individual and emphasizes freedom of choice and responsibility
Friedrich Willhelm Nietzche
- 1st to recognize that there are 2 opposing pyschic forces (now called ID and Superego)
- Pathology emerges when we ignore our will and basic nature (ID)
Sigmund Freud
- hypnotism in France - Nancy School of Hypnosis
- Psychoanalysis - probing the depths of the human mind
- Hysterical neuroses results from unconscious memories of sexual pleasure and excitation in early childhood - Presexual sexual shock
- Seduction Theory
- Dreams - royal road to unconscious
--Manifest Content - events, situation, objects, and people
--Latent Content - underlying meaning of manifest elements
- Psychosexual theory of personality development
- Oedipus & Electra complex, Castration complex
- "Scaffold of the Mind" - ID, Ego, Superego
Anna Freud
- Popularized child Psychoanalysis - treat children differently
- 1st to stress and publish ego defense mechanisms
1) Regresssion-retreat to earlier stages of development
2) Rationalization-untrue explanation for behavior
3) Projection-attribution of unpleasant desires to others
4) Reaction Formation-behaving opposite of what your true desires are
5) Displacement-emotion shifted from real object to safer object
6) Sublimation-emotion shifts to something socially approved
- Repression is underlying mechanism in all defenses - Most basic - Keeping thoughts out of consciousness that are too tramautizing
Melanie Klein
- Anna Freuds rival in psychoanalysis
- emphasized principle layers of personal development
--Stressed importance of nurturing mother - breast is critical in psychosexual development - especially for boys
- Believed psychoanalytic procedures could be applied to children in same way but different issues just occuring earlier
- Everything of adult psyche needs to be analyzed
Karen Horney
- Important for feminine psyc
- Objected to penis envy
- didn't focus on females problems(psychoanalysis) - instead focus on womens lack of self confidence and leadership
Basic Anxiety-childs feelings of helplessness and isolation within a potentially hostile world
- 10 different problems that result in abnormal adult personalities-Arise from needs in 3 areas -
Needs that involve:
1) Moving towards people
2) Moving away from people
3) Moving against people
- normal individuals integrate 3 groups of needs - balance=no abnormality
Herbert Spencer
- "Principles of Psychology"
- Synthetic Psychology - principles of evolution applied to social issues
- Striving for perfection - achieving greater complexity
- Evolutionary Associationism - frequently made associations can be passed on to future generations - creates change in genetic makeup which is then passed on - Reflexes and instincts
- Teological Approach to Evolution - everything strives towards a goal - always making progress--> Social Darwinism
- Societies and institutions within them evolve like species with the " Survival of the Fittest"
Charles Darwin
- voyage on navy ship-Beagle - position as a naturalist
- wanted to prove through voyage that the biblical account of creation was true
- 3 assumptions of the beginning of the theory of Evolution
1) World is not static but is ever changing
2) Process of change is slow but continuous
3) This process results in markedly different manifestations
Charles Darwin
- Natural Selection or Survival of the Fittest - the preservation of favorable individual differences and variations and the destruction of those which are injurious
- Continuity - Descent of Man - There is no fundamental difference between man and higher mammals in their mental faculties
- Mechanism - genetic mechanism underlying evolutionary change
- Theory of Evolution - framework for all life sciences
--raised questions about the adaptive value of consciousness and the minds contribution to human adaptation and survival
Francis Galton
- Darwins cousin
- 1st to study individual differences in the mind
--inheritance of both physical and mental characteristics--> Rejected idea that you could inherit learned characteristics
--environment doesn't have impact on genetic makeup, its the longer genetic lineage thats important
- Application of stats to mental ability
- Variations in abilities fall on normal distribution
--Evidence for the inheritance of mental abilities
---Closer to family member, more likely to inherit abilities
Franic Galton
- Questionnare - asking families about education & characteristics
-- found that environment and genetics explain ability
-- important for nature vs nurture
- Twin Studies - nature vs nurture - heredity accounted for most variabilitiy
- Eugenics - improvement of human race by selectively breeding the best people
-- wanted to find mentally superior
-- established lab to test people mental abilities for a fee
- Observed correlations & reversion
- Word associations experiment
-- childhood experiences for adult behavior
-- mental imagery - formed when making associations
- hearing in dogs and cats
William James
- 1st lab in the US- hired Munsterberg - more theoretical
- wrote "Principles of Psychology" - didn't like the result so wrote abrdiged version--"Psychology:The Brief Recourse
- Topics from the Principles of Psychology
1) Description of Consciousness - stream of consciousness - exists or doesn't
-Stream of Consciousness - thoughts in continuous stream rather than bits and pieces
William James
Thoughts Have 5 Characteristics
1) Thoughts are part of persons consciousness - each different
2) Thoughts are always changing
3) Thoughts are sensibly continuous
4) Our consciousness deals with objects outside of self
5) Consciousness is selective - its concerned with some parts of the objects rather than others at any point in time
- Consciousness evolved because it has a purpose - can learn
- Habit - well learned pattern of behavior
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli

Sight of Pounding heart Fear
Car --> (arousal) --> Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Emotion arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:
1. Physiological responses
2. Subjective experience of emotion
Schacter's 2 Factor Theory of Emotion
To experience emotion one must:
- Be physically aroused
- Cogntively label the arousal
Mary Whiton Calkins
- Harvard Annex(Radcliff) - Petition to take classes from William James
- Established 1st Experimental Lab at Wellsley
- Founder of the paired associates method for studying memory
- Advocated for what became known as Self-Psychology--(Personalistic Psychology) - Science of the Self of person as related to its environment
- 1st women president of APA
Granville Stanley Hall
- Applying psychology to teaching
- Founded the APA - 1st president
- American Journal of Psyc - 1st American Journal
- 1st developmental psychologist
- Recapitulation Theory - every human being passes through all stages of the races evolution in his/her personal development
- 1st to look at Gerentology
- Psychology and religion
- Directed the work of the 1st African American to earn a PhD in Psychology - sumner
Francis Cecil Sumner
- Father of black american psychology
- Department of psychology at Howard university
- Research dealing with race & religion
--Attitudes of blacks and whites towards the administration of justic - make it more democratic
James McKeen Cattel
- Big proponent of Eugenics - improvement of species through selective breeding - research in individual differences
- devloped a battery of mental tests
--1st to introduction to human subjects & to test college freshman
- developed rank order assessment - precursor to likert scale
- Organized the Psychological Corporation - promote applied research & publish tests
- **Bridge between British Psychology of individual differences & the German Psychology of the generalized mind
--started to legitimize psychology as a science
James Mark Baldwin
- President of APA
- 1st lab in Canada, then Princeton & John Hopkins
- Organic Selection - combination of natural selection & evolution toward perfection through greater complexity
- Applied to study of children
- considered Hall to be founder of developmental psychology
- Piaget is most influenced by Baldwin
- 1st American formal school of thought in psychology
- precursor to behaviorism
John Dewey
- Reflex Arc Concept - a stimulus produces a sensation that triggers a response - child candle reflex
- Emphasized learning by doing rather than rote memorization
- Hired George Herbert Mead
---Known for his concept of self & other
---movement of social & clinical psychology - social as a formal discipline
James Rowland Angell
- Resolved the Titchener & Baldwin Reaction Time Controversy
~Titchener-faster RT when you focus on the response
~Baldwin-faster RT when you focus on the stimulus
- Angell-Both men are right, its a matter of training that makes the difference in RT
- Nomothetic & Idiographic approach to studying psychology
- Nomothetic - generalized mind - grouped principles
- Idiographic - study of individual specifically - small/single n
- Conceptualized Functionalism - study of mental operations - not elements
- elements are too simple, whole is gretaer than parts - know how and why, not what
- study of mind engaged in mediating between environment & organism
- study of relationship between mind and body - Psychophysical psychology
Harvey A. Carr
- Psychology was the study of mental activity - within that, the aim is to manipulate experience in order to achieve a better adjustment between the organism and environment so functionally a person does better
Harvey . Carr
3 essential elements to study an adaptive act:
1) A motivating stimulus
2) Sensory situation
3) A response
- Can Satisfy a motivating stimulus in 1 of 3 ways:
1. Adaptive removes the stimulus
2. Adaptive act disrupts the stimulus by substituting a more powerful stimulus
3. Organism may adapt to motivating stimulus -
- Learning - engaging in adaptive acts produces learning - removal of motivating stimulus via adaptive acts produces learning
Edward Lee Thorndike
- studied mind reading ability in kids
- inheritance of mental traits
- Animal Research - trained cats to escape from puzzle boxes
--Animal Intelligence - Book-Learned intelligence
-- Quantified animals ability to escape confinement
-- Examined animal memory
-- Examined the beneficial effects of imitation
- 1st animal research
Edward Lee Thorndike
- Looked at Stimulus-Response(SR) Learning - The association of a particular stimulus with a particular response with the result that future encounters of the stimulus willlead to the same response
- Law of Effect - Responses in a situation followed closely by satisfaction are more likely to be repeated
- Law of Exercise - Repetition of association strengthens the bond between a situation and the response to it (practice)
- Argued for learning predispositions - idea that evolution has shaped an organisms associative system so that some associations are more easily made than others
Edward Lee Thorndike
continued again
- Doctrine of Formal Discipline - exercising the mind by learning disciplinary subjects would improve the minds ability to learn other unrelated subjects
--Transfer of Learning - need to be very related and similar
- Research impacted how children were taught in America
- spelling words, childrens dictionary
- CAVD, 1 of 1st measures of intelligence
--C=Sentence completion
--A=Arithmetic ability
--D=ability to follow directions
-transition from functionalism to behaviorism
Robert Sessions Woodworth
- Motiviology - science of motives
- Psychology should encompass both introspection and study of behavior
- Stressed importance of the organism
- Changed SR to SOR-Stimulus-Organism-Response - internal state influences the response
- Motiviology is a reflection of internal state - explains relationship between stimulus and response
--Mechanisms - how somethings accomplished
--Drive - why somethings accomplished
- A mechanism can become a drive
- President of APA 1914
- Eclectic Psychologist
Pierre-Paul Broca
- Craniometry
- Brain size is a general index of intelligence
- men are more intelligent than women on average
- Contemporary individuals more intelligent than past people
- Skulls and brain weights supported theories
- Stephen Jay Gould challenged idea
Alfred Binet
- Empirical support fo hypnosis
- 1899-Binet approached by Theodore Simon to look at IQ testing in children
- Developed the test of Binet and Simon (1905)
-- an objective, empirical way to identify retarded children
-- important revision of test in 1908 and 1911
-- intelligence as multifaceted
Victon Henn
Began study of individual psychology - mental tests to establish individual differences
Charles Spearman
- intelligence as inherited
- Tests of intelligence - unsophisticated but great statistics
-- Factor Analysis - a statistical procedure to analyze and interpret a series of correlations within a data set
-- 2 Factor Theory of Intelligence
- Underlying general factors of intelligence - the "g" factor
- Special intelligence - the "s" factor - special abilities
- Established the construct of intelligence
William Stern
- Student of Ebbinghaus
- Personalistic psychology
- looked at individual test scores as particular "mental ages" which could then be compared to actual "chronological ages" to determine a degree of advancement
- Intelligence Quotient - Mental age divided by chronological age
Lewis Madison Terman
- modifications to Binet and Simon Test--Later called Stanford-Binet test
- Involved in Army Alpha & Beta test
- longitudinal studies
- stability in intelligence across environment (with Nancy Bayler)
- research on marital satisfaction
David Wechsler
- Wechsler-Bellvue Test - better than Stanford-Binet for adults
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC)
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
- More standardized scoring system (mean of 100, converted to percentile ranks)
Henry Herbert Goddard
- The Kallikak Family - A study in the heredity of feeblemindedness
--Feeblemindedness is inherited
- feebleminded should not breed with normal people-it would spread it
- US immigration laws
- Sterilization laws
- Methodological problems and weaknesses
Robert Mearns Yerkes
- selected to head committee to create tests for military
- made test to prevent harm to others and security risks
- to assign people to appropriate service
- Army Alpha - group administration
- Army Beta - non-english, used pictures instead of words
Army Alpha and Beta Tests
- application of IQ to real world problems
- group administration

- group administration
- misinterpreted by the public
- mental age of the tests was 14
- ethnic differences
- experience dependent
Sir Cyril Burt
- heredity of intelligence
- revised Binet and Simon for use in England
- Fradulent Research - lied, created data, took credit for others work
JP Guilford
100+ components of intelligence
LL Thurstone
- Helped advance factor analysis
- 7 primary mental abilities
1) verbal comprehension
2) world fluency
3) use of numbers
4) spatial visualization
5) associative memory
6) perceptual speed
7) reasoning skills