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119 Cards in this Set

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Name the top four wine producing States in the US.
California produces approximately 90% of all American wine, followed by New York, Washington, and Oregon.
When and by whom was the first Californian wine produced?
In 1783, Franciscans at the San Juan Capistrano Mission produced California’s first wine from Mission grapes.
When was the first vineyard planted in Napa?
In 1836, George Yount arived in Napa as the first American settler to set foot in the valley, and planted its first vineyard.
Who started California's oldest commercial winery?
The Hungarian-born, self-styled “Count” Agoston Haraszthy arrived in Sonoma in 1849, where he founded Buena Vista, one of California’s oldest commercial wineries. Dubbed the “father of California wine”, the colorful Haraszthy introduced more than 300 varietals to the state, collected as vine cuttings during his European travels. He is often credited with introducing Zinfandel in California, though this claim has been disproven.
Percentage of Grapes Required for Labeling by Appellation if labeled by country, state, or county?
75%
Percentage of Grapes Required for Labeling by Appellation if labeled by AVA?
85%
Percentage of Grapes Required for Labeling by Appellation if labeled with a single vineyard?
95%
What are the AVA rules for a stated vintage?
If an American or imported wine in the US uses a vintage date, the wine must carry an appellation smaller than a country. For wines labeled with an AVA, a minimum 95% must come from the stated vintage; for wines labeled with a state or county, the minimum is relaxed to 85%.
What are the AVA rules pertaining to wine with a varietal designation?
Wine with a varietal designation must contain a minimum 75% of the stated varietal—Vitis labrusca grapes, like Concord, are an exception, and need only comprise a minimum 51% of a varietal wine.
Does alcohol content have to be stated on a bottle based on AVA rules?
Alcohol content must be stated on the label, within a margin of +/- 1.5%. As an alternative, wines in the 7-14% abv range may simply be labeled as “table wine” or “light wine”.
What are the AVA rules pertaining to Estate Bottled wines?
In order to legally qualify for the term “Estate Bottled”, 100% of a wine must come from grapes grown on land owned or controlled by the winery. In addition, the winery and all vineyards used in the production of an estate-bottled wine must be located within the same AVA.
What is notable about the Northern Sonoma AVA?
The 329,000 acre Northern Sonoma AVA, which comprises all of the county’s individual AVAs save Sonoma Valley and Carneros, was proposed by Gallo of Sonoma, who may now blend across pre-existing AVA boundaries for its estate-bottled wines.
The major winegrowing regions of California are divided into which large AVAs?
North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, and the Sierra Foothills.
In which counties are the sub AVA's Alexander Valley and Anderson Valley located?
Alexander Valley - Sonoma
Anderson Valley- Mendocino
Name two sub AVA's of Oregon's Willamette Valley.
Chehalem Mountains
Ribbon Ridge
Yarnhill-Carlton District
Dundee Hills
McMinnville
Eola-Amity Hills
What is the U.S.A.'s smallest AVA?
Cole Ranch in Mendocino.

It is a monopole of Esterlina.
Which of the following are AVA's:

Sonoma County
Sonoma Coast
Sonoma Valley
Sonoma Mountain
All of the above
Which Sonoma AVA's are well known for Zinfandel?
Dry Creek Valley and Rockpile both in in the northern part of Sonoma.
When did Mondavi first release Fumé Blanc?
1968
Where are these AVA's located?

Horse Haven Hills
Wild Horse Valley
Horse Haven Hills is in the Columbia valley in Washington
Wild Horse Valley is a sub region at the south end of Napa
True or False:

Napa was the first AVA in 1981
False.

The first AVA was Augusta in Missouri (1980). Napa was the second.
True or False:

The Mayacaymus mountains are on the east side of Napa.
False.

The Mayacaymus mountains are on the west side of Napa and form a border between Napa and Sonoma.
Where are these AVA's located?

Rattlesnake Hills
Snake River Valley
Rattlesnake Hills is within Columbia Valley in Washington
Snake River Valley straddles Idaho and Oregon
Washington's Red Mountain AVA is renowned for what varietal?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Which AVA's are shared by Oregon and Washington?
Columbia Valley
Columbia Gorge
Walla Walla Valley
Which mountains provide the rain shadow for BC's Okanagan Valley?
The Monashee Mountains
Which AVA has the warmest climate in Sonoma?
Knight's Valley
Which AVA has the coolest climate in Napa?
Los Carneros
What river runs through the Willamette Valley?
The Willamette river
What varietal is Chalone AVA known for?
Chardonnay

Based on the Chalone Vineyards winery the Chaolone AVA specializes in Chardonnay. The wine was entered in the 1976 judgement of Paris and placed 3rd among the 10 Chardonnays.
Where is Wente located and what varietal do they specialize in?
Wente is located in Livermore Valley AVA south east of San Fransisco. The Livermore AVA is noted for Sauvignon Blanc.
Where is Garys' Vineyard?
Garys' Vineyard is located within Santa Lucia Highlands AVA and produces Pinot Noir.
What is the scuppernong?
The scuppernong is a large variety of muscadine, a species of grape native to the southeastern United States. It is usually a greenish or bronze color and is similar in appearance and texture to a white grape, but rounder and larger and first known as the 'big white grape'.
What are mission grapes?
Mission grapes are a variety of Vitis vinifera introduced from Spain to the western coasts of North and South America by Catholic New World missionaries for use in making sacramental, table, and fortified wines. Until about 1850, Mission grapes, or Criolla, represented the entirety of viticulture in California wines.
What are mission grapes also known as?
Criolla.
Where in the USA were vinifera vines first introduced?
Virginia.
Who planted California"s first vineyard?
Junipero Serra, A Fransican Friar from Catalan, Spain.
What is Alexander?
Alexander (also known as Tasker's Grape) is a sponteneous cross of vines from which the first commercial wines in America were made. It was discovered in 1740 in the neighborhood of Springgettsbury, Philadelphia, in a vineyard where James Alexander (d. 1778), William Penn's gardener, had originally planted cuttings of vinifera in 1683. It was popularized by the Bartram family at Bartram's Garden, Philadelphia, and widely distributed after the American Revolution by William Bartram.
The Alexander grape is a hybrid grape of Vitis labrusca and another species, which may probably be Vitis vinifera. In the 18th century and much of the 19th century it was impossible to grow European wine grapes in the open air in the eastern half of North America. The Alexander combined disease and pest resistance from North American grapes with some of the better qualities of European wine grapes. It was an acceptable grape for large-scale planting and wine production. The Alexander was the basis for the first successful North American wine industry over much of the east coast, in Pennsylvania in the 1790s, in Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, and in Indiana in 1806.
Who was behind the Buena Vista winery and why is the winery relevant?
Agoston Haraszthy, a Hungarian entreprenur. It is said to be the first commercial winery in California. Haraszthy is often said to be the father of the California wine industry and is credited with bringing over 300 different varietals from the greatest vineyards in Europe to California.
Where was the first vitis vinifera recorded as being planted and why did it fail?
This experiment, like many others along the Eastern seaboard, ended in failure as the European vines succumbed to new vine diseases and the phylloxera pest.
Which AVA are Sonoma Coast AVA and Napa Valley AVA located withing?
North Coast AVA.
Why and where are the finest quality Californian wines produced?
Most of the fine wine districts are located near the coast, where fog and cool sea breezes mitigate temperatures and create a large diurnal swing from warm days to cool nights.
Which AVA is best suitable for sparkling wine production and why?
Carneros, the southernmost AVA within Napa, is suitable for the production of sparkling wines,Cool ocean air funnels through the Petaluma Gap into the San Pablo Bay and upward through the valley.
Which varietals are more suitable for Calistoga AVA?
Cabernet Sauvignon or Zinfandel because it routinely sees daytime summer temperatures above 90° F.
What soil type is commonly found in Napa Valley?
The valley has a remarkable diversity of volcanic, alluvial and maritime soil types, ranging from well-drained gravel loam to dense clays to the thin, rocky soils of the hillside vineyards.
What was Napa's first sub appellation to receive and AVA?
Howell Mountain.
Name 5 sub AVA's of Napa Valley.
Coombsville (est. 2011)
Calistoga
Diamond Mountain District
Spring Mountain District
St. Helena
Rutherford
Oakville
Stags Leap District
Mount Veeder
Yountville
Los Carneros (Carneros)
Wild Horse Valley
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley
Atlas Peak
Chiles Valley
Howell Mountain
Which varietals thrive in northern stretch of Sonoma Coast?
The coolest temperatures can be found in the northern stretches of the Sonoma Coast AVA, where altitude, cold ocean air and persistent coastal fog combine to keep temperatures down. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay thrive, along with cool-climate renditions of Rhône varietals.
Who was Charles Krug?
Charles Krug (1825-1892) was among the original pioneers of winemaking in the Napa Valley, and was the founder of the winery of the same name. In 1851 he served as an apprentice winemaker for both Agoston Haraszthy and then John Patchett before establishing his own winery. Historically, Charles Krug introduced innovative ideas in winemaking to California. He began making wine using a cider press, carefully selected rootstocks, varietals and vineyard sites. The knowledge he gained and shared benefited the young California wine industry.
When was phylloxera exported to Europe from the Eastern US?
1863.
How was the problem of phylloxera managed?
Use of a resistant, or tolerant, rootstock, developed by Charles Valentine Riley in collaboration with J. E. Planchon and promoted by T. V. Munson, involved grafting a Vitis vinifera scion onto the roots of a resistant Vitis aestivalis or other American native species. This is the preferred method today, because the rootstock does not interfere with the development of the wine grapes, and it furthermore allows the customization of the rootstock to soil and weather conditions, as well as desired vigor.
Discuss the relevance of Inglenook.
In 1879 Niebaum established Inglenook Winery in Rutherford, California, a small village in Napa Valley. It was the first Bordeaux style winery in USA. Captain Nienaum's wines became world-renowned, winning gold medals in the World's Fair of Paris in 1889. Niebaum's home and adjacent vineyard in Rutherford were purchased by Francis Ford Coppola in 1975 with proceeds from the original Godfather (movie). Coppola released his first vintage in 1977 under the Niebaum-Coppola label. In 1995 Coppola purchased the remaining acreage and chateau style winery which were part of the original Niebaum estate.
What varietal is most prevalent in the Knights Valley AVA?
Cabernet Sauvignon.
What varietal is most prevalent in the Alexander Valley AVA?
Cabernet Sauvignon.
What is the stylistic difference between Alexander Valley Cab and Napa Valley Cab?
Alexander Valley Cabernet Sauvignon tends to show a more herbaceous character and less body than its Napa counterparts.
Name 5 sub appellations of Sonoma AVA.
Los Carneros (Carneros)
Sonoma Valley
Sonoma Mountain
Bennett Valley
Sonoma Coast
Northern Sonoma
Russian River Valley
Green Valley of Russian River Valley
Chalk Hill
Dry Creek Valley
Rockpile
Alexander Valley
Knights Valley
Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (est. 2011)
Fort Ross-Seaview (est. 2011)
Name 5 sub appellation of Mendocino AVA.
Mendocino
Mendocino Ridge
Anderson Valley
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
McDowell Valley
Yorkville Highlands
Dos Rios
Cole Ranch
Covelo
Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (est. 2011)
What is the smallest wine producing county in the North Coast AVA?
Lake County AVA
Name 5 sub appellations of Sonoma AVA.
Los Carneros (Carneros)
Sonoma Valley
Sonoma Mountain
Bennett Valley
Sonoma Coast
Northern Sonoma
Russian River Valley
Green Valley of Russian River Valley
Chalk Hill
Dry Creek Valley
Rockpile
Alexander Valley
Knights Valley
Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (est. 2011)
Fort Ross-Seaview (est. 2011)
Name 5 sub appellation of Mendocino AVA.
Mendocino
Mendocino Ridge
Anderson Valley
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
McDowell Valley
Yorkville Highlands
Dos Rios
Cole Ranch
Covelo
Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak (est. 2011)
What is the smallest wine producing county in the North Coast AVA?
Lake County AVA
Where is Monterey County located?
Central Coast AVA.
List 5 sub AVA's of Monterey County.
Monterey
Santa Lucia Highlands
Chalone
Hames Valley
Arroyo Seco
Carmel Valley
San Antonio Valley
San Bernabe
San Lucas
What grape is most widely planted in Monterey AVA?
50% of Monterey AVA is planted with Chardonnay.
Where is San Luis Obispo County?
San Luis Obispo County is located in the Central Coast, south of Monterey.
What are the 4 AVA's of San Luis Obispo County?
Paso Robles
Arroyo Grande
York Mountain
Edna Valley
What are the 4 AVA's of Santa Barbara County?
Santa Maria Valley
Santa Ynez Valley
Sta. Rita Hills
Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara
What heat summation zones does the Central Valley fall between and what production are they best suited for?
Between Region IV and Region V heat summation zones—temperatures most suitable for fortified wines, table grapes and raisins.
What distinguishes Lodi AVA from the rest of the Central Valley?
It is located on the western edge of the Sacramento River Delta, is slightly cooler than much of the Central Valley, due to the influence of a gap in the coastal ranges, which pulls the coastal air inland from the San Francisco Bay.
When and how was Oregon settled?
It was settled by farming families walking the Oregon Trail in the early 1800's.
When and where were the first vines planted in Oregon?
Willamette in 1847
True or False?
After the prohibition, Oregon began producing wines from Vitis Vineifera.
False. The Oregon wine industry was dominated by fruit wines, including wines based on grapes other than Vitis Vineifera.
In the 1960's, what varietals rebuilt the Oregon wine industry?
Mostly Alsatian varietals.
Where in Oregon was Pinot Noir first planted?
Willamette Valley
Who were the Californian winemakers which arrived in Oregon?
Dick Erath
Ponzis
Sokol-Blosser
Adelsheims
What happened in Oregon in 1973?
Oregon passed land use laws, namely the Urban Growth Boundary
What percentage of the labeled varietal must be in the bottle in Oregon?
90%, though lower for Bordeaux Varietals 75%
What percentage of fruit must come from the identified region of origin in Oregon?
100%
How can the climate of Oregon be characterized?
Maritime influence, cool breezes and cooler temperature.
What is the most famous vineyard of the Santa Cruz Mountains AVA?

Martha's Vineyard
Eyrie Vineyard
Monte Bello Vineyard
Gary's Vineyard
The Santa Cruz Mountains AVA found just south of San Fransisco is home to Ridge's Monte Bello vineyard.

Martha's vineyard - Oakville, Napa
Eyrie Vineyard - Dundee Hills, Willamette
Gary's Vineyard - Santa Lucia Highlands, Monterey County
What is the dominant grape of Monterey county?
Chardonnay accounts for more than 50% of plantings with Pinot Noir widely grown as well.
Match the AVA to the County

Chalone Mendocino
Paso Robles Napa
Santa Maria Valley Sonoma
Anderson Valley Monterey
Chalk Hill San Luis Obispo
Diamond Mountain Santa Barbara
Chalone - Monterey
Paso Robles - San Luis Obispo
Santa Maria Valley - Santa Barbara
Anderson Valley - Mendocino
Chalk Hill - Sonoma
Diamond Mountain - Napa
What is the sole commercial winery in the Mount Harlan AVA?
Calera which created the AVA for their Pinot Noirs.
Which of the following is not an San Luis Obispo AVA?

Arroyo Grande
Paso Robles
Arroyo Seco
Edna Valley
Arroyo Seco

It is located in Monterey County north of San Luis Obispo
When is the heaviest rainfall in Oregon?
Mostly rain in the Spring and Fall, can be drought conditions in the summer
In the East, behind the Cascades, what is the climate?
Dry and hot.
What are the 2 mountain ranges encompassing Oregon?
The Coastal Range to the west and the Cascade Range to the east.
How do the mountain ranges influence the climate in Oregon?
The Coastal area offers a slight rain shadow effect, but the gaps in the ranges allow cool air from the Pacific to enter.
What is the most heavily planted varietal in Oregon?
Pinot Noir.
Which Pinot Noir clones are commonly found in Oregon?
The early clones were Swiss, but now changed to Dijon - these are smaller clusters.
What are the most common varietals planted in Oregon?
Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris
Chardonnay
Merlot
Cab Sauv
Riesling
Gewurz
Syrah
Pinot Blanc
What are the three soil types found in Oregon?
Clay
Marl
Sedimentary/Volcanic

There are also granite pockets in the Rogue
What are the most commonly used trellising styles in Oregon?
Varies throughout the region, but mostly double Guyot, Cordon, and Scott Henry
What are the four main Oregon AVAs?
Willamette Valley
Southern Region
Eastern Region
Columbia Gorge
Where is the Willamette AVA?
It is located between the Coastal and Cascade ranges.
Which AVA in Oregon accounts for the majority of production?
Willamette AVA
What is the major grape varietal of Willamette AVA?
Pinot Noir
Name 3 sub AVAs of Willamette.
McMinnville Foothills
Dundee Hills
Ribbon Ridge
Yamhill-Carlton District
Eola-Amity Hills District
The Chehalem Mountains
What are the sub AVAs of the Southern Region (Oregon)?
Umpqua
Rogue Valley
Red Hill Douglas County
Applegate
What is the climate of the Southern Region AVA of Oregon?
Generally warm, sunny and arid.
What varietal dominates in the Umpqua AVA?
Pinot Noir
What river runs through the Umpqua AVA and what effect does it have?
The Umpqua River passes through the AVA from the Cascades through the Coastal Mountains to the Pacific. This cools the region considerably.
What is significant about Rogue Valley AVA and Applegate AVA?
It is bordered by three mountain ranges that define different mesoclimates. There is no dominant varietal identity for the area.
Which varietals do well in the Rogue Valley AVA?
Zinfandel, Bordeaux varietals, Chardonnay

Rhone varieties are still young vines, though they should do well.
True or False:

Paso Robles has a cool climate from the moderating marine influence
False.

Paso Robles is a hot climate suitable for red varietals. It is protected from the marine influence by the Santa Lucia range.
True or False:

Edna Valley has a cool climate appropriate for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
True.

Edna Valley is a cool coastal subregion of San Luis Obispo.
The Sta. Rita Hills AVA is within which Santa Barbara AVA:

Santa Maria Valley
Santa Ynez Valley
Santa Ynez

Sta. Rita Hills is a sub appellation within Santa Ynez.
Which county of California is known for having the longest growing season?
Santa Barbara

This cool region I zone has the longest growing season in the state.
What are the major AVAs of the Eastern Region (Oregon)?
Columbia Valley
Walla Walla Valley
Snake River Valley
Which varietals are common in the Eastern Region AVA?
Pinot Noir
Syrah
Pinot Gris
Riesling
Name 5 key producers in Oregon?
Ponzi
Erath
Cristom
Adelsheim
Beau Frere
Willa Kenzie
Eyrie
Amity
How did the wine industry survive in Washington during the prohibition?
By selling grapes to home winemakers.
Where is the Lake County AVA located?
In the North Coast surrounded by Mendocino to the west and Sonoma and Napa to the south.
What varietals are chiefly grown in the Sierra Foothills AVA?
Zinfandel and Cabernet Sauvignon.
What are the two major mountain ranges that define California geography?
The low, rugged coastal range and the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Who is Leon Adams and what is his significance in Washington?
Commercial plantings and early producers in the 60's attracts Leon Adams (wine writer and advocate). Adams introduced Chateau Ste. Michelle to Andre Tchelistcheff.
Who was Agoston Haraszthy?
1st father of California wine
Brought vinifera to Sonoma
Beuna Vista Winery
Hillside plantings, no irrigation
Who was André Tchelistcheff?
2n father of California wine
Founder of Beauliey Vineyards
Introducted French barriques, cold fermentations, and frost machines to California.
Defined the style of Cali wine, especially Cab Sauv
What is Evan's most used catch phrase?

"Sounds fair folks?"
"At that point in time"
"Majoritarly"
The answer without a doubt is, "at that point in time."