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47 Cards in this Set

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Name four functions of the lymphatic system.
1) drains & filters excess tissue fluid, returning it to blood stream
2) protects against invasion of pathogens and foreign matter
3) transports dietary fats
4) transports waste material
edema
excess body fluid
Where does dietary fat enter the lympatic system
picked up in the lymph vessels of the digestive system
Name a benefit and a danger of dietary fat in the circulatory system
fat has fat-soluble vitamins

fat can build up in fatty deposits around the heart
Name three types of T cells
cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
suppressor T cells
What sort of substances are filtered out by the lymphatic system?
microorganisms, cellular debris, foreign material
Excess tissue fluid that has moved into lymph vessels
lymph fluid
What causes lymph fluid to flow?
flows passively, massage increases
Lymph vessels are (larger/smaller) than blood vessels
smaller
Duct where lymph fluid empties back into blood vessels
thoracic duct
Where are lymph vessels found?
found all through the body alongside blood vessels
Name 3 types of cells found in the lymphatic system.
1) macrophages
2) B cells/ plasma cells
3) T cells
Where are B cells formed?
formed in the Bone marrow
humoral immunity
antibody-mediated
memory cell
cloned B cell that responds to a subsequent attack by the same antigen (aka plasma cells)
Name four places where lymph tissue is found.
1) tonsils
2) lymph nodes
3) spleen
4) thymus
Define tonsil
nodule of lymphoid tissue not covered by a capsule
What is the function of tonsils?
trap and destroy bacteria and pathogens
Where are tonsils found?
(body openings):
throat (palatine, lingual, pharyngeal), intestine, vagina
How do helper T-cells function?
secrete chemicals to stimulate the immune response
Lymph nodes are shaped like
small, round bean-shaped structures
Where are lymph nodes located and how many are there?
hundreds throughout body at various points along the lymphatic system
Name five sets of lymph nodes that can be palpated.
1) mandibular
2) superficial cervical
3) superficial inguinal
4) popliteal
5) axillary
Name two functions of lymph nodes.
1) filter out microorganisms and other debris
2) produce lymphocytes
Does the spleen filter lymph?
No! filters blood instead of lymph
Where is the spleen located?
left side of abdominal cavity beneath diaphragm
Name four functions of the spleen.
1) lymphocyte cloning
2) filters pathogens out of the blood
3) destroys worn-out WBCs
4) stores RBCs in some species
The thymus gland, in addition to being a part of the immune system, is also an _________ gland.
endocrine gland
At what age is the thymus largest?
largest in young animals
What is the (immune) function of the thymus?
place where T cells become immunocompetent
Where is the thymus located?
overlies the heart, deep to the sternum
Describe nonspecific immunity
provides a general response against a wide variety of pathogens
Are nonspecfic defenses against disease acquired, or present before birth?
defenses present before birth
Give three examples of nonspecific defenses
1)anatomical barriers- skin, mucous membranes
2) physiologic barriers- fever, inflammation
3) phagocytosis- macrophages, neutrophils
Is specific immunity acquired or present before birth?
Acquired- develops after birth
Name three aspects of specific immunity.
1) antigen-specific
2) systemic
3) has "memory"
antigen
piece of material capable of stimulating an immune response
antibody
protein made by B cells that binds to a specific antigen
active immune response
animal develops antibodies to the antigen
Describe two types of active immune response
1) natural- animal has the disease
2) artificial- animal is given a vaccine
Passive immune response
animal is given the antibodies (not made by his own system)
Describe two types of passive immune response
1) natural- given by mother via placenta or colostrum
2) artificial- given antibodies made by another animal by transfusion
autoimmune disease
body responds to self antigens as foreign
cancer
mutation causes cells to lose control over the cell cycle
Name two ways cancer cells can move around the body.
blood vessels, lymph vessels
Name two benefits of massage on the lymphatic system.
1) reduces lymphedema by improving circulation to the lymphatic system
2) increases presence and activity of natural killer (NK) cells
Which method is more effective at removing waste and bacteria, passive range of motion, massage, or electrical stimulation?
massage