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34 Cards in this Set

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Who is the major source of funding for
"Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results Program (SEER)"
NCI - the National Cancer Institute
Who is the major source of funding for the "National Program of Cancer Registeries (NPCR)"?
CDC - the Center for disease control
Does either the SEER cancer registry or the NPCR cancer registry
cover all of the U.S. population alone?
No, but between the two they cover 100% of the U.S.
Who helps pay for the national cancer registeries?
State Health Departments, Universities, Cancer Centers, Research Grants/ Contracts
What year did Utah begin collecting cancer data?
1966
How do they get people to enter data into the cancer registry?
It is required by law. Every cancer patient is followed until death.
What data is collected for the cancer registry?
Demographics,
Tumor Information,
Treatment,
Provider & Facility,
Georeferenced Data,
Cause of Death.
When is most of the data for the cancer registry collected?
At the time of diagnosis.
For the cancer registry they collect treatment information.
Over what time period do they count as the initial treatment?
Usually the first 4 months.
They do not collect information on adjuvant therapy for a secondary occurance.
Does the registry collect family history
No. It is difficult because it is time intensive and because it changes over time.
Do cancer registeries give information out or only take information in?
They give it out too. They give personalized information out to providers and facilities that have provided care. Patients can request to see any information that has been collected about them. The registries may also give de-identified information to researchers, or others in need of epidemiological statistics.
What is the name of the science concerned with the study of the factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health-related events and their causes in a defined human population?
Epidemiology
What is the mathmatical formula for incidence?
Number of NEW cases divided by the population at risk.
New Cases/ Population at Risk

Typically expressed as N per 100,000 population
Who is in the population at risk for cancer?
Everyone who is alive.
What is the cancer survival rate?
The percent of people who have been diagnosed with a cancer who are still alive after a certain amount of time (3 years, 5 years)
What is the difference between "net survival" and "all cause" survival?
Net survival rules out those who have died from anything besides the cancer.
What is "Lifetime Risk"?
The chance of developing or dying of cancer across a person's lifetime.
Usually expressed in 1 in N
where
N =1 /(risk /100)
Calculate the lifetime risk of developing cancer expressed in the format "1 in N" for a person who has a 20% risk of developing cancer.
Answer = 1 in 5

Calculation:
N = 1/(Risk/100)
N = 1/(20/100)
N = 1/.2
N = 5
What is relative risk?
An estimate of the magnituted of an association between two groups.
If a group who took an experimental drug had a relative risk of 1.0 compared to a group that did not, what does that mean?
There is no difference in the risk.
If a group that took an experimental drug had a relative risk of .8 compared to a group that did not take the drug, what does that mean?
The group that took the drug had a lower risk. If 10 in 100 people would normally get the disease, then 8 out of 100 people who took the drug would likely get the disease.
A study found that Hormone Replacement Therapy increased breast cancer by 24%. What is the relative risk for women who are taking HRT of getting breast cancer compared to women who are not on HRT?
1.24
The relative risk of getting lung cancer for people who smoke as compared to people who don't smoke is 25. By what percent does smoking increase your risk of lung cancer?
2,500%
What statistical measures would you want to look at if you want to measure the occurrence of cancer or death from cancer in a certain age group?
Age-specific Incidence
Age-specific Mortality
If we compare a state with a younger population to a state with an older population. It may appear that the risk of getting or dying from cancer is greater in the older population. This may or may not be true. What statistics would we want to look at to determine this?
Age-adjusted Incidence
Age-adjusted mortality
What is the biggest non-behavioral risk factor for all cancers?
age
What is the biggest modifiable risk factor for cancer?
Smoking
Name key risk factors for cancer.
Smoking, alcohol, diet, hormones & reproductive factors, red meat, industrial chemicals/ herbicides, pollutants off air and water, radiation, anti-cancer drugs, immunosuppresive drugs,
What cancer is associated with epstein-barr virus
Burkitt's lymphoma
What virus is associated with cervical cancer?
HPV - humin papilloma virus
What virus is associated with leukemia?
Human T-Cell lymphotropic virus
What virus is associated with liver cancer?
Hepatitis B virus
What virus is associated with Kaposi's Sarcoma?
HIV
What are two key factors for cancer survival?
Early detection
Prevention