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59 Cards in this Set

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___ are new useless organs
tumors (neoplasms)
Cancers from epithelium are ______
carcinomas
cancers from mesenchyme are ______
sarcomas
tumors grow ____ than surrounding tissue, and they never _____ to grow
more rapidly

cease
___ are ugly cells, a marker for cancer or precancer
anaplasia
__ a new useless organ produced by cells bearing mutations
neoplasia
____ ugly cells in an epithelium without invasion "carcinoma in situ"
dysplasia
A ____ is well differentiated
few mitotic figures and never metastisizes
benign
____ arise from stratified squamous epithelium and have keratin, pearls, desmosomes, tonofilaments, single cell apoptosis
squamous cell carcinomas
___ arise anywhere there are glands esp glands within glands swiss cheese
adenocarcinoma
Most common male cancers are:

Most common femal cancers are:
prostate,lung,colon

breast, lung, colon
Deadliest male cancers:

deadliest female cancers:
lung, prostate, colon

lung, breast, colon
___tumor grown lump like cauliflower
exophytic
___tumor grows like ulcer
endophytic
____tumor cells invade organ without changing its shape
infiltrating
lymphatics are traditional spread route for ______
carcinomas
blood vessels are trad route spread for ______
sarcomas
__ means glandular epithelium
adeno-
__ used for squamous or transitinal epith and benign
papillo-
malignant and nonglandular epithelium use ______ to name
origin of cell basal cell renal cell
fibro
fibroblasts
myxo
myxoid tissue
chondro
cartilage
osteo
osteoblasts
lipo
fat
chordo
notochord remnants
leiomyo
smooth muscle
rhabdomyo
striated muscle
schwanno/neurilemmo
nerve sheath (perineurinium)
hemangio
blood vessels
lymphangio
lymphatics
glomangio
glomus
meningio
arachnoid granulation
lympho
lymphocytes
totipotential cells
terato
______ is good stuff, good location, wrong proportions
hamartoma
chorio
placenta
pheochromocyto
adrenal medulla
_____ or _____ is mass of normal tissue in wrong place
choristoma , ectopia
lymphoma, mesothelioma, myeloma,astrocytoma,carcinoid,glioma,ependymoma,seminoma, hepatoma, melanoma, dysgerminoma, leukemia
all are malignant but have benign names
what disease?
p arm absent, 45X, horseshoe kidney, lymphedema, cyctic hygroma, systolic murmur
Turner's
human cell cycle lasts ____
mitosis lasts_____
metaphase lasts _____
24 h
1-2 h
1 h
___ is when long and short arms euqal in length
metacentric
____centromere offset making short and long arms (like X chromosome)
submetacentric
___occurs at centromeres of acrocentric chromosome 2 longs stick together short usually lost
Robertsonian translocation
__ long arm

__ short arm
q

p
__ is chemical sometimes used to determine banding patterns on chromosomes
trysin/w specific stains
___ is pictoral representation of chrmosomes showing banding pattern prodecue by stain
idiogram
____ pictoral display of chromosome collected from each cell
karyotype
____ when centromere way at one end, very short arm, usually lose it (13,14,15,22)
acrocentric
___ when chromosomes segments exchange btw chromosome
reciprocal translocation
____ when chromosome breaks each side of centromere flips 180 rejoins
oericentric inversion
__ when 2 breaks occur on single arm rotate 180 rejoin
paracentric inversion
tetraploid /4N causes miscarriages
92
triploid (3N) 1 egg 2 sperm
69
47XX+21, 47XY+21,
hypotonia, simian creases, hyperflexibility, excess skin back nexk, clinodactyly
need at least 4 of these for what disease?
Downs
95% Downs caused by____
nondisjunction chromosome pair 21 in 1st meiotic division in females (47) or 14,21 21,21 translocation or could be mosaics
_____ has classic triad: cleft lip/palate, polydacyly, eye abnormalities
Trisomy 13
______ has short sternum, hammer toe, seizure, overlapping digits, heart defect
Trisomy 18