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20 Cards in this Set

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The abnormal growth of cells that tends to invade neighboring tissues and spread to distant body sites
cancer
condition of uncontrolled proliferation that knows no limits and serves no purpose for the host
cancer
refers to new growth; is interchangeable with the term "neoplasm"; does not always refer to something cancerous
tumor
new growth (tumor)
neoplasia/neoplasm
the term for cancer cells having independence from normal cellular controls
autonomy
loss of differentiation; loss of form
anaplasia
What type of tumor is this?
well-encapsulated
well-differentiated
slow growing
has the suffix "-oma"
benign
What type of tumor is this?
grows rapidly
not well differentiated
poorly defined
invades local tissues
spread through blood/lymph to distant locations
malignant
the stage in which the cancer is in the organ of origin is?
stage 1
the stage in which the cancer is locally invasive is?
stage 2
the stage in which the cancer has spread to regional structures like lymph nodes is?
stage 3
the stage in which the cancer has spread to distant sites is?
stage 4
refers to a combination of physical findings, lab testing, and imaging studies that reveal if the cancer has spread
clinical staging
substance produced by cancer cells that is found on the tumor plasma membrane, blood, spinal fluid, or urine
tumor marker
What causes cancer?
Cancer is caused by the genes of the cells; predominantly a disease of aging
progression of specific genetic changes ("hits") are required for the cell to become cancerous; when a sufficient # of hits occur, the cancer develops
multiple-hit hypothesis
some cancer cells secrete growth factors that stimulate their own growth
autocrine stimulation
self-destruct mechanism that is diabled in cancer cells
apoptosis
secreted in advanced cancers and stimulate the growth of new blood cells to supply cancer with nutrients
angiogenic factors
chromosome "end caps" that are destroyed with each cell division; cancer cells maintain these and do not die
telomeres