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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define neoplasm
tumor or new growth
list 5 characteristics of a benign tumor
encapsulated
well-differentiated
slow growing
non-invasive
do not metastasize
list 5 characteristics of a malignant tumor
no capsule
poorly differentiated
invade local structures and tissues
spread distantly through blood and lymph
grow rapidly
define carcinoma
cancer arising from epithelial tissue
How are benign tumors usually named?
according to the tissues from which they arise with the suffix "oma"
How are malignant tumors named?
according to the cell type of origin
define sarcoma
cancer arising from connective tissue
define lymphoma
cancer arising from lymph tissue
define leukemia
cancer of blood-forming cells
define carcinoma in situ (CIS)
pre-invasive epithelial tumors of glandular of squamous cell origin that have yet to break through the basement membrane of the epithelium
define anaplasia
loss of cellular differation
(literally "without form")
In what five areas of the body does carcinoma in situ occur?
cervix, skin, oral cavity, esophagus, and broncus
Cancer confined to the organ of origin
Stage 1
Cancer that is locally invasive
Stage 2
Cancer that has spread to regional structures such as lymph nodes
Stage 3
Cancer theat has spread to distant sites
Stage 4
What are stem cells?
undifferentiated cells
define undifferentiated cells
cells that are not totally commited to a specific function (stem cells)
What does autonomy mean in relation to cancer cells?
the cancer cell's independence from normal cellular controls
What are the two heritable properties of a cancer cell?
autonomy and anaplasia
What are tumore markers?
substances produced by cancer cells that can be found on tumor plasma membranes or in the blood, spinal fluid or urine
What are the three ways tumor markers can be used?
1) to screen individuals who are high risk for cancer
2) to diagnose specific cancers in those with symptoms
3) to follow the clinical course of cancer
Epithelial
Carcinomas
Connective tissue
Sarcoma
Lymphoma
Lymphoid
Leukemia
Blood-forming cells
Where does a Teratocarcinoma originate?
Germ cells
Cancer theat has spread to distant sites
Stage 4
The most common mutation found in human cancers
the tumor suppressor gene called p53
An increase in pro-growth signals derives from mutations of protooncogenes into...
oncogenes
enzyme that allows cancer cells to become "immortal"
telomerase
genes that provide pro-growth signals in healthy cells
protooncogenes
genes that provide anti-growth in a normal cell
tumor suppressor genes
What are point mutations?
substitutions of one or a few nucleotide base pairs in the DNA
What are chromosome translocations?
the rearrangement of genes from one chromosome to another
What does gene amplification describe?
a mutation in which a small piece of chromosome is duplicated multiple times
What does aneuploidy refer to?
a process in which, when the cell divides, instead of both progeny cells receiving the same number of chromosomes, one gets an extra copy of a chromosome (trisomy) and the other gets only one copy (monosomy)
Tumor-suppressor genes act in a recessive manner. In other words, it takes mutations at both alleles for a tumor-suppressor gene to lose its anti-growth properties. Thus oncogenesis requires that the cell be homozygous for a mutation of a tumor-suppressor gene.
This is referred to as “loss of heterozygosity.”
What are point mutations?
substitutions of one or a few nucleotide base pairs in the DNA
What are chromosome translocations?
the rearrangement of genes from one chromosome to another
What does gene amplification describe?
a mutation in which a small piece of chromosome is duplicated multiple times
What does aneuploidy refer to?
a process in which, when the cell divides, instead of both progeny cells receiving the same number of chromosomes, one gets an extra copy of a chromosome (trisomy) and the other gets only one copy (monosomy)
Tumor-suppressor genes act in a recessive manner. In other words, it takes mutations at both alleles for a tumor-suppressor gene to lose its anti-growth properties. Thus oncogenesis requires that the cell be homozygous for a mutation of a tumor-suppressor gene.
This is referred to as “loss of heterozygosity.”
What are exogenous DNA sequences?
onogene-containing pieces of DNA inserted into host chromosomes by viruses
What type of gene mutation is seen in c-myc?
chromosomal translocation
What is gene silencing?
Abherrant methylation causes an allele of a tumor-suppressing gene to be turned off
Microorganisms can cause cancer by what two primary mechanisms?
1. Integration of a viral oncogene into the host cell DNA; or
2. Virus- or bacteria-induced inflammation with increased replication of host cells leading to increased likelihood for random mutation.
What does clonal selection mean for the growth of tumors?
Genetic mutations cause the cell to grow faster and "out-compete" normal cells or competing subclones. The mutated cells have a selective advantage.
What are three ways a tumor can increase its rate of division?
1) point mutations
2) chromosome translocation
3) chomosome amplification
What are two ways a cancer cell cell evades anti-growth signals?
1) increased receptor sites

2)
What is angiogenesis, and how does it influence tumor growth?
The ability of a larger tumor to grow its own blood supply
What are telomeres?
?
What is telomerase?
?
How do protoncogenes become oncogenes?
?
What are tumor suppressor genes?
?
mechanisms by which viruses and bacteria may contribute to the biology of cancer
1
To what tumors has cigarette smoking been linked?
1
What role do xenobiotics play in cancer risk?
1
How is alcohol consumption linked to cancer risk?
1
Are there foods that decrease the risk of cancer?
1
What are some of the occupational exposures related to cancer?
1
How does radiation cause cancer?
1
What are some of the known dietary risk factors for cancer?
1
What are the risks of passive smoking?
1
Are oral contraceptives associated with increased cancer risk?
m
How do androgens contribute to prostate cancer risk?
m
Are estrogens and progesterones linked to cancer?
m