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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the steps in invasion and thus metastasis?
local invasion of basement membrane, attachment and intravasation, movement in lymphatic or blood vessel system, attachment and extravasation, invasion of distant tissue, growth in distant site.
what is an epigenetic risk factor?
any factor that will influence the espression of an actual genetic risk.
Examples of risky diet and life style practices:
caffeine (good and bad)
nitrates in drinking water
heterocyclic amines in chargrilled meat
smoking, dipping... duh
Of rural vs. urban people, who are more susceptable to cancer?
What gleason scales are generally low, moderate, and high?
<6 is low, 7 is moderate, 8-10 is high.
List some tumor cell properties that facilitate metastasis
-production of growth factors and their receptors
-production of angiogenic factors
-motility, invasiveness, aggregation, deformability
-specefic cell surface receptors and adhesion molecules
List some tumor cell properties that limit metastasis.
-inhibitors of angiogenesis
-cohesion (E-cadherin)
-tissue inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes
List some host cell properties that facilitate metastasis:
-paracrine and endocrine growth factors
-platelets and their products
-immune cells and their products
List some host cell properties that inhibit metastasis:
-tissue barriers
-blood turbulence, endothelial cells
-tissue inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes
-antiproliferative factors
-inhibitors of angiogenesis
Distinguish between angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.
angiogenesis is the recruitment of endothelial cells from existing vessels while vasculogenesis is activation of endothelial cell precursors
In terms of metastasis, what happens if the primary tumor is removed? What does this suggest?
Metastasis increases suggesting that the tumor itself produces inhibitory substances.
Distinguish between direct and indirect inhibitors of angiogenesis.
Direct inhibitors affect the endothelium and its response to stimuli. Indirect inhibitors affect affect the tumor cell's expression of angiogenic growth factors.
distinguish between the two components of a neoplasm.
The parenchyma is the neoplastic cells that determine the tumor's biological behavior and the stroma is the non-neoplastic supportative tissue.
List the general benign neoplasms of epithelial origin.
adenoma, papilloma, cystadenoma, papillary cystadenoma, polyp
List the general benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.
Fibroma, lipoma, osteoma, chondroma
list the general benign neoplasms of endothelial origin (or related tissue).
hemangioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma (smooth muscle), rhabdomyoma (striated muscle)
what is a tumor that is composed of more than one neoplastic cell type and is derived from more than one germ layer?
what are the three main types of carcinomas?
adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma.
Define anaplasia
loss of differentiation, a typical sign of malignancy
dysplastic cells that involve the entire epithelial thickness and do not penetrate the basement membrane are refered to as...
carcinoma in situ
Carcinomas usually spread via what route? Sarcomas usually spread via what route?
carcinomas usually spread via lymphatics (but some like hepatocellular and renal carcinomas spread via blood) Sarcomas usually spread hematogeneously
what is the big difference genetically between solid tumors and hematopoetic tumors?
solid tumors are generally heterogeneous while hematopoetic tumors are generally clonal
Burkitt's lymphoma is caused by a translocation of chromosomes 8 and 14. What is the molecular result of this translocation?
The oncogene MYC is constitutively expressed via the promoter of the IgH gene that the MYC gene becomes attached to.
How does Gleevec work?
The philadelphia chromosome causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This causes joining of BCR-ABL thus constitutive expression of an RTK. Gllevec binds this RTK and inhibits it.
What is the difference between tumor suppressors and oncogenes?
Oncogenes sustain gain of function mutations and their presence leads to cancer. Tumor suppressors sustain loss of function mutations and this loss of function leads to cancer.
What are the basic characteristics of prostate cancer?
Most common malignancy in men, very high prevalence (could be considered an age related event), second leading cause of male cancer-related deaths in the western world, not invariably lethal, very heterogeneous disease.
Which oncogene is most often found altered in pancreatic cancer?
What type of cancer specefic mutations occur in the Ras protein?
P21 Ras activating mutations lock Ras in a GTP bound state.
What are common cancer susceptibility syndromes and the mutations that cause them?
Retinoblastoma (pRb), Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (p53), Wilms Tumor (WTI), Hereditary colon cancer (APC), and neurofibramatousis (NFI)
What is the etiology of cervical cancer?
HPV infection can initiate a series of steps which lead to cervical cancer.
List evidence supporting immune surveillance.
-immune deficinet patients have increased cancer susceptability.
-organ transplant patients on immunosuppressives are more susceptalbe
-a rare syndrome shows variation in immunity and correlating variations in cancer severity
-Chediak-Higashi patiens (lack NK cells and Macs) are more susceptable
-Ovarian cancer patients with more Tc cells in the tumor have a better prognosis
-down regulation of MHC I's in colon cancer correlates with a poor prognosis.
List evidence against immune surveillance.
Immunodeficient patients typically have higher incidence of hematologic and other rare cancers, not the common ones, and organ transplant patients on immunosuppressives do not show susceptability to all cancers, just select types.
What are approved immunotherapy approaches to cancer?
inflammation from dead BCG bacteria in bladder cancer, transfer of activated lymphocytes and IL-2 in kidney cancer and melanoma, monoclonal Ab's to Her2 receptor in breast cancer, and vaccine for HPV.
What are some experimental immunotherapy approaches to cancer?
anti-tumor vaccines, use of tumor specefic monoclonal Ab's, adoptive cell transfer, enhancing tumor immunogenecity by transfecting costimulatory genes and/or cytokine genes.
What are the roles and mechanisms of dendritic cells in immunity to cancer?
They cross present tumor Ag's to MHCI's to activate CD8's to kill tumor cells. They can also present Ag to B cells which will then secrete Ab specefic for the tumor.