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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why do some normal cells become cancerous?
a mutation of a cell's DNA
What two environmental factors seem to contribute to the increase of cancer rates in some areas?
1. Pollution
2. Pesticide Runoff
Name two places in the US that are associated with a high risk of cancer
1. cities (urban areas)
2. The Mississippi Delta
What is meant by "cancer causing agents are mutagens?"
the agents readily (easily)damage DNA
True or false, it takes many mutations to produce cancer.
it is the genes for the signal carrying proteins that tell a cell when to divide
does cancer result when oncogenes become more active or less active?
more active
what do we call the "breaking gene" in the cell?
tumor suppressor genes
what is the function of this "breaking gene?"
it prevents cell division from occurring too often
how many safety checks does your cell have to try to prevent cancer?
what should healthy cells do during their lives?
1. grow
2. divide a certain number of 3. times
4. age
5. die
what do we call a group of excess cells that have divided too often?
explain the difference between BENIGN and MALIGNANT tumors
Benign_tumors do not spread to other parts of the body

Malignant_tumors however, invade and destroy nearby healthy tissues and organs
what does "metastasize" mean?
spread to other parts of the body and form new tumors
why are cancer cells sometimes referred to as "immortal?"
they can divide indefinitely
how many times do normal mammal cells divide during their life?
20 to 50 times
name the common oncogene present in 30% of all cancers and in leukemia
what is wrong with a tumor suppressor gene in order for cancer to occur?
it is inactivated by mutation
can cancer be inherited? How?
yes; inherited through genes, in one copy of a tumor suppressor gene.
there is a tumor suppressor gene that is associated with 50% of human cancers, what is it called?
list five common cancers which are caused by a malfunction of the p53 gene
1. breast
2. colon
3. lung
4. prostate
5. skin
list six environmental factors that can lead to a dangerous mutation of p53
Exposure to:
1. x-rays
2. ultraviolet radiation
3. cigarette smoke
4. asbestos
5. human papilloma virus
6. hepatitis B virus
how many deaths in the US are caused by cancer each year
more than half a million
what fraction of the yearly deaths is this
one out of every five deaths
what is the only thing that kills more people each year
heart disease
what has happened to the number of new cancer cases and deaths in the last several years
for every 100,000 persons...has decreased
what is the number one deadly cancer
lung cancer
list the next three deadliest cancers in order of occurrence
which of the serious cancers for males has the highest survival rate
prostate cancer
which of the serious cancers for females has the highest survival rate
breast cancer
which cancer has the losest survival rate
pancreatic cancer
what are your chances of surviving lung cancer for five years
what two things can you do to greatly increase your chance of surviving cancer
1. get regular cancer screenings
2. detecting early the presence of cancers
what is an ONCLOLOGIST
a physician who is a cancer specialist