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131 Cards in this Set

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Results when normal cells mutate into abnormal cells that respond differently than normal cells to intracellular signals they divide indiscrimiately and haphazardly and take over normal tissue
Cancer
Cancer will eventually harm and _______ the host
Destory
Solid tumors arising from epithelial cells
Carcinomas
Derived from muscle, bone, fat and other connective tissue
Sarcomas
Originate in the lympoid tissue
Lymphomas
Originate in the cells in bone marrow that make blood
Leukemias
Develops in the plasma cells of bone marrow
Myeloma
3 most common cancers for males are?
Prostate
Lung
Colorectal
3 most common cancers for females are?
Breast
Lung
Colorectal
_______ are higher at risk
Men
The nursing role in cancer health promotion is to encourage...
routine medical check up and screenings
Always offer teaching in client awareness to act if symptoms of ______ occur
cancer
Effects of Cancer:
Causes excessive secretion of cortisone causing fluid retention, and high glucose levels
Increased Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
There is no _______ until cancer metasizied
Pain
_______ pain is when a symptom came on that brought you to the dx of cx
Acute
______ pain is related to treatment or progression
Chronic
Physical _________ causes pain while the body tries to respond and destory the neoplasm
Stress
CAUTION stands for?
Change in bowel habits
A sore that will not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious change in wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
Localized, non-cancerous growths; solid mass with well defined boarders; frequent encapsulated
Benign
tumors that grow aggressively; no cohesion; irregular shape. Malignant tumors can spread
Malignant
Original site of malignancy
Primary Tumor
Areas where malignancy has spread
Secondary tumor
When tumor cells travel through blood or lymph circulation to other body areas and invade tissues and organs in another part of the body
Metastasis
Commmon sites of metastasis are?
Lymph Nodes
Liver
Lungs
Bone
Brain
Disruption of function is due to __________ or pressure and leads to anorexia and necrosis of an organ
Obstruction
Hematologic Alterations can impair function of blood cells which has ________ WBC, ______ RBC and platelets
Low
Low
Infections cause a breakdown of defenses so a ________ can develop and it may become necrotic and lead to septicemia
Fistula
Tumor erosion, bleeding and severe anemia
Hemorrhage
The catabolic state is ______ when the use of body tissue and nuscle protein is used to support cancer cell growth
Anorexia
Cachexia Syndrome is another word for _______ in which a person has a wasted appearence
Anorexia
Cachexia syndrome is unexplained weight rapid loss; what do you do for them?
Bring them the food they like!
Major concern of clients and families associated with cancer?
Pain
Paraneoplastic Syndromes are ectopic sites with ________ horomone production
excess
Increased parathyroid horomone causes _____________
Hypercalcemia
Increased secretion of insulin causes __________
Hypoglycemia
Increased antidiuretic hormone causes fluid retention, HTN and peripheral _________
edema
________ are named according to the tissue or cell of origin
Tumors
Grading evaluates the degree of differentiation and rate of growth. Grade 1 is _____ aggressive while Grade 4 is _______ aggressive
Least
Most
TNM stands for?
Tumor size
Nodes
Metatsisis
PSA is specific for _______ cancer
Prostate
CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is specific for ______ cancer
Colon
CA-125 is specific for _____ cancer
Ovarian
Alkaline Phosphate is specific for _______ metastasis
Bone
You should _______ check the estrogen level, along with CBC, Electrolytes and BMP
Always
Goal of treatment is to be ______ of dx and live a normal life; CURE
Free
________ is the goal for chronic cancer
Control
________ care is when qualitity of life is maintained at highest level for the longest possible time
Palliative
Involves use of cytotoxic medications that kill BOTH normal cells and cancerous cells
Chemotherapy
Nitrogen Mustard and Cisplatin are _________ agents for chemo
Alkylating
Action of an Alkylating agent is to create _____ in tumor DNA
Deficits
Toxic effects of alkylating agents are ______ renal tubular necrosis
Reversible
Antimetabolics medications are _________ specific and are chemo drugs
Phase
Methotrexate and 5 fluoracil are examples of _________ medication
Antimetabolic
Side effects to Antimetabolic medications include:
N&V
Stomatitis( ____________)
Diarrhea
Alopecia
Leukopenia
Inflammation of the mouth
Antitumor Antibotics are ______ specific and they interfer with DNA
Non-phase
Actinomycin D, Belomycin, Adriamycin are all _________ medications
Antitumor
Toxic effects of antitumor medications are damage to the ________ muscle
Cardiac
Adriamycin is used for ______ cancer
Breast
Miotic inhibitors prevent cell _____ during the M phase of cell division
Division
Vincristine and Vinblastine are examples of ___________ inhibitors
Miotic
Toxic effects of miotic inhibitors is that it affects ____________, alopecia, bone marrow depression
Neurotransmission
Hormone medications are ____ specific G1, and can only be give during the acute phase
Stage
Examples of ____________ are cortisteriods including predisone and decodron
Hormone
Hormone Antagnoist medications ________ hormones on hormone-binding tumors and cause tumor regression
block
Tamoxifen is a hormone aganiost and is used for ____ cancer
Breast
Flutamide is a hormone antagonist and is used for _____ cancer
prostate
Toxic effects of hormone antagonists are altered secondary _____ characteristics
Sex
Tissues are affected: mucous membranes, hair cells, bone marrow, specific organs with speicifc agents, reproductive organs
Effects of chemo
All chemotherapy drugs are ____ toxic
Fetal
When adminstering chemo you must wear _______
Gloves
Proper management of pts excretement is necessary after chemo, which means you must teach them to ______ flush
Double
Routes of adminstrations for chemo include: ____ and ____ cavity
Oral and Body
You always assess and manage the toxic effects of the drugs and always report them to the _______

***TEST QUESTION****
Physician
N&V, inflammation and ulceration of mucous membranes, alopecia, anorexia
Side effects of chemo
Nursing interventions would be to:
_______ lab results\
Check _______!
Assess for dehydration (________)
Monitor
Fever
Emergency
Chemo drugs are withheld if the _____ counts are seriously low
Blood
Always provide ______ and ________ support to clients and families
Emotional and Spiritual
Decrease the size of a tumor in advanced cancer cases
Debulking
Treatment choice for some tumors to kill or reduce tumor, relieve pain or obstruction
Radiation Therapy
Radiation delievered in uniform dose to tumor "MOST COMMON"
Teletherapy (External)
Delievers high dose to tumor and less to other tissues; radiation source is placed in tumor of next to it
ex: prostate seeds
Brachytherapy
You can use in __________ teletherapy and bradytherapy
Combination
The main goal is ________ tumor control with minimal damage to normal tissues
Maximum
Caregivers must _____ themselves by using shields, distancing and limited time with client, following safety protocols
Protect
Treatment _________ planned according to radiosensitivty of tumor and tolerance of client
Schedules
You should always monitor _____________
Blood cell counts
Due to radiation therapy _______ becomes blanched, erythema and sloughing
SKin
You always make sure that they use no __________ and wash with water only!
Ointment
Always be gentle with ulcerated _______ membranes
mucous
A huge side effect of the GI tract for radiation therapy is ________
Fistula
Radiation pneumonia is an ___________ and it is when cancer moves to the lungs
Emergency
Remember shots are very painful so you should ________ sides
Alternate
Modification of biologic processes that result in malignancies and it is based on boosting the patients immune system function
Biotherapy
Interfereon and Procrit is used to increase ________
neutrophils
_________ is used for hematological malignancies, renal and melanoma
Biotherapy
PT is given photosensitizing compond which concentrates in malignant tissue; than later they are given laser treatment to destory the tumor
Photodynamic Therapy
In photodynamic therapy is directly hits the tumor site, but not the ___________ tissue
surrounding
An example of a photodynamic therapy is _______ which is common in bladder cancer and smaller tumors
Photfrin
Common treatment for leukemias and uses stimulation of nonfunctioning marrow or to replace bone marrow
Bone Marrow transplantation and blood stem cell transplantation
After the transplant, the patient has no natural _______ present until the graft is accepted
Immunity
Goal of _____ control is maximum relief with minimal side effects
pain
Give opiates and during intermintent pain you use ___________
anti-inflammatories
_______ is the 5th vital sign
pain
_______ are given in the acute phase
Steroids
The main concern for pericaridal effusion and neoplastic cardic tamponade is compression of the _____ by fluid in the pericardial sac
***EMERGENCY***
Heart
Treatment for pericardial effusion and neoplastic cardiac tamponade is pericardiocentesis which is where you put a needle in and ________
aspirate
Obstruction of venous system with increased venous pressure and stasis
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Facial and neck edema with slow progression to respiratory distress is signs of Superior vena cava syndrome which is an ________
Emergency
Treatment for superior vena cava syndrome is _______ support and to decrease the tumor size with radiation
Respiratory
Usually _____ patients get sepsis and septic shock
Terminal
Concern for sepsis is _____ reconigition of the infection
early
You give a patient an anti- ______ medication for sepsis
***emergency***
fungal
Pressure from expanding tumor can cause irreversabile paraplegia; back pain
Spinal cord compression
Signs and symptoms for spinal cord compression is:
____ pain with progressive paresthesia and leg pain and weakness
Back
Treatment for spinal cord compression is early detection and ______ of tumor or surgical decompression
Radiation
Blockage of urine flow and undiagnosised can result in renal failure
***EMERGENCY***
Obstructive uropathy
Treatment for obstrucive uropathy is to ____ the urine flow with catherization or a suprapubic urostomy
Restore
High calcium from ectopic parathyroid hormone or metastasis
Hypercalcemia
S&S of hypercalicemia are an ______ and include:
Fatigue
muscle weakness
polyuria
constipation progressing to coma or seizures
Emergency
Treatment for ________ includes restoring fluids with IV saline, loop diuretics
Hypercalcemina
When a patient has hyperuricemia you make sure that they drink lots of ______
water
The concern for hyperuricemia is rapid ______ of tumor cells can result in renal damage and failure
Necrosis
Treatment for hyperuricemnia is prevention and treatment with _____ and alopurinol
Fluids
Ectopic ADH production from tumor leads to excessive hyponattremnia
SIADH
Treatment for SIADH is to restore _____ level by giving IV replacement
Sodium
most common childhood cancer in which the cells change in the bone marrow
leukemia
cancer of the nervous system which is most common in the abdomen
Neuroblastoma
OSteosacroma occurs in children over ____ years of age
10
Cancer of the shaft of the bone, which is rare but fast growing
Ewings Sarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the cancer of the _____ that connects to the bones
muscles
Retinoblastoma is eye cancer which is ______ and this is the reason why eye exam is mandaatory on infants
Inheritable