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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Are fungi more closely related to animals or plants?
What nutritional mode do fungi utilize?
They are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from their surroundings, digesting food with exoenzymes secreted into the food.
What ecological roles do fungi play?
decomposers (saprobes), parasites, and mutualistic symbionts
What external structure do most fungi have?
Tiny hyphae make up a mycelium mat to absorb nutrients quickly. Parasitic fungi, though, also have haustoria which are designed to penetrate their host.
Why do we usually not see the majority of a fungus?
because it's almost all underground
What cell-level structure do most fungi have?
Most are multicellular, with septa walls between cells, which allow large organelles to get through, but some are coenocytic, without septa. Both types have chitin cell walls, though.
How and how fast can mycelia grow?
They can add up to a kilometer a day because that's where all of their energy is channeled.
How do fungi reproduce in general?
They release enormous numbers of spores, produced asexually or sexually.
Are fungi more often haploid or diploid?
How do fungi reproduce sexually?
Two mycelia fuse (plasmogamy) to make a heterokaryotic stage in their life cycle. Some time later later their nuclei fuse (karyogamy) to make a zygote that makes spores which germinate to become a new mycelium.
What is a person who studies fungi called?
a mycologist
How many species of fungi are known and how many are hypothesized to exist?
100k and 1.5M
What are the four phyla of fungi?
Chytridiomycota (chytrids), Zygomycota (zygote fungi), Ascomycota (sac fungi), and Basidiomycota (club fungi)
What are chytrids?
Aquatic saprobes and parasites, they branched off the fungi line before flagella were lost.
What are mycorrhizae?
fungi mutualistic with plants
What do zygote fungi have in common?
They live on land in soil or dead stuff, include mycorrhizae, and are coencytic.
What is an example of a zygomycete (zygote fungus)?
Rhizopus stolonifer, otherwise known as black bread mold because it makes round black sporangia to distribute spores
What are zygosporangia?
the heterokaryotic result of plasmogamy of two mycelia of opposite mating types in Zygomycota, which does karyogamy and meiosis to make new spores besides being resistant to environmental pressures
What do the sac fungi include?
more than 60k fungi, unicellular yeasts, cup fungi, morels, harmful plant pathogens, and many saprobes that are a part of lichens
What defines Ascomycota?
sexual spores held in sacs called asci borne out from ascocarps
Describe the life cycle of an ascomycete (sac fungus).
Two individuals of opposite mating types come together. One makes a cell called an ascogonium, while the other makes an antheridium. The antheridium transfers its nuclei to the ascogonium, and the ascogonium grows within the ascocarp, making asci at tips where karyogamy, meiosis, and mitosis make 8 nuclei, incorporated into 8 ascospores, which are all released at once, making new mycelia.
What is the main difference between ascomycetes and zygomycetes?
The heterokaryotic stage is longer in ascomycetes than zygomycetes.
How do the ascospores line up within an ascus?
in the order in which they formed
What are basidiomycetes?
common name club fungi, they decompose plant material, form mycorrhizae, parasitize plants, and act as saprobes.
What are five examples of club fungi?
mushrooms, shelf fungi, stinkhorn fungi, rusts and smuts
Describe the life cycle of a basidiomycete.
Two mycelia of opposite mating types get together, plasmogamy creates a dikaryotic mycelium that takes over, some stress lets them create a basidiocarp (like a mushroom) with basidia on the ends, where karyogamy and meiosis take place, then the haploid nuclei are released in basidiospores, four per basidium, which make new mycelia.
How do fairy rings pop up?
A mycelium expands outwards, creating a ring structure after it has absorbed all the nutrients in the center. It concentrates on building mushrooms and they all pop up overnight.
What are the four fungal forms of life?
molds, yeasts, lichens, and mycorrhizae
What are molds?
asexually-reproducing rapidly-growing fungi
What is primarily used for classifying fungi into their phyla?
sexual reproductive stages
What are imperfect fungi?
fungi without any sexual stages in their life cycle, reproducing by making spores
What are yeasts?
unicellular fungi that reproduce asexually or sexually as Ascomycota or Basidiomycota
What is an example of a yeast?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ascomycete is used in most yeast applications: baking, brewing, and experimentation.
What are examples of harmful yeasts?
Rhodotorula, a pink yeast, and Candida, an opportunistic pathogen
What are lichens?
symbiotic associations of microscopic algae and fungal hyphae (usually ascomycetes)
What does a fungus offer an alga in a lichen?
It provides the alga with an environment to grow in, cyanobacteria to fix nitrogen, minerals, gas exchange, protection and shade.
How do lichens reproduce?
sexually and independently (the fungi as ascocarps of basdiocarps), or asexually through fragmentation or soredia, small clusters with both lichen and algae
Do the components of lichens live alone?
in the wild, some algae do, but not the fungi; but if they are separated and grown on cultures, they won't come back together
What ecosystem roles do lichens play?
They take part in primary succession and the nitrogen cycle.
What is special about lichens?
They can withstand harsh environments (except air pollution), dry and cold, and also are some of the oldest organisms on Earth.
What are mycorrhizae?
mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi
Which plants and fungi take part in mycorrhizae?
almost all vascular plants and members of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota, including nearly half of the Mushroom Kingdom
What positive roles do fungi play in ecosystems?
They primarily decompose dead tissues and organic matter.
Besides pathogenic fungi, what harm do fungi do?
They destroy 10-50% of global fruit harvests (stimulated by ethylene as well as plants are), along with shower curtains, boats and even plastic.
How are fungi pathogens?
Most of the 30k pathogenic fungus species are plant pathogens, such as Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease carried by bark beetles), Cryphonectria parasitica (attacked American chestnut), and Puccinia graminis (wheat rust).
What are examples of toxic fungi that are plant parasites?
The mold Aspergillus secretes carcinogenic aflatoxins and the ascomycete Claviceps purpurea makes ergots on rye that cause a plethora of effects, killing 40k French in 944 AD and includes lysergic acid (LSD).
What can fungi do directly to humans?
They can cause mycoses (fungal infections) such as ringworm, athlete's foot, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis
What do humans use fungi for?
We eat mushrooms (which are basidiocarps) and cheeses flavored by fungi; Aspergillus makes citric acid; truffles smell funny to attract animals; we use yeast in baking, brewing and winemaking, and Penicillium to make penicillin
When did fungi adaptively radiate?
at the colonization of land with plants, around 460 million years ago
What did fungi and animals evolve from?
likely an aquatic flagellated protist
Are the phyla of fungi monophyletic or paraphyletic?