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29 Cards in this Set

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acid precipitation
Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6.
adhesion
The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
aqueous solution
A solution in which water is the solvent.
buffer
A solution in which water is the solvent.
calorie (cal)
calorie (cal)

The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie (with a capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie.
Celsius scale
A temperature scale (°C) equal to 5/9 (°F 232) that measures the freezing point of water at 0°C and the boiling point of water at 100°C.
cohesion
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
evaporative cooling
evaporative cooling

The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state.
heat of vaporization
heat of vaporization

The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state.
heat
The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
hydration shell
The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion.
hydrogen ion
hydrogen ion

A single proton with a charge of +1. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
hydrophillic
Having an affinity for water
hydrophobic
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
hydroxide ion
A water molecule that lost a proton.
joule (J)
A unit of energy: 1 J=50.239 cal; 1 cal=54.184 J.
kilocalorie (kcal)
kilocalorie (kcal)

A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
kinetic energy
The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
molarity
molarity

A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute in 1 L of solution.
mole (mol)
The number (mol) of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro's number of molecules.
molecular weight
The sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule.
pH
pH

A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to –log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
polar molecule
A molecule (such as water) with opposite charges on opposite sides.
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solution
A homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances.
solvent
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
specific heat
specific heat

The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C.
surface tension
surface tension

A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
temperature
temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules.