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117 Cards in this Set

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What are the prognostic factors for canine oral melanoma?
bad if: metastasis, greater than 2 cm diameter, caudal site, bony lysis, high grade, high mitotic index
What new treatment is there for oral melanoma?
DNA tyrosinase vaccine
Where are non-tonsillar/non-lingual SCCs found?
gingiva, rostral to canine teeth
What is teh biologic behavior of non-tonsillar/non-lingual SCCs?
Locally aggressive, Infrequently metastasize locally or distantly, invade bone if in mandible or maxilla
What treatment doesn't work on oral fibrosarcoma?
Chemo
Where is oral fibrosarcoma often found?
Maxilla
What is the biologic behavior of canine oral fibrosarcoma?
Low metastatic rate,happens late in disease to Lymph nodes. frequent bony invasion
What kills dogs with oral fibrosarcoma?
local disease
What kind of lingual tumors do dogs usually get?
Squamous cell carcinoma. Can also be melanoma
How much do lingual tumors metastasize in dogs?
A moderate amount (intermediate)
Where do epulides arise from?
Periodontal ligament (benign gingival proliferation)
What kind of epulides invades bone?
Acanthomatous
Where do acanthomatous epulides tend to be?
Rostral mandible
Where do epulides arise?
maxillary premolars
How are oral tumors treated?
All the same- surgery with 2 cm margins. Take bone. Extirpate lymph nodes. Radiation for dirty margins or non-resectable tumors.
Which oral tumors are responsive to radiation?
SCC and acanthomatous epulides
What radiation protocol works best for melanoma?
Coarse fractions
Which oral tumors are responsive to chemo?
Melanoma-30% response to carboplatin
SCC- some response to peroxicam/carboplatin
What are the most common oral tumors in cats?
SCC (70%)
Where do SCCs arise in cats?
sublingual, bone, gingival
What is teh biologic behavior of oral SCC and fibrosarcoma in cats?
Bony involvement common, metastasis uncommon
SCC has fast local progression
How do you treat cat oral tumors?
Only 10% are surgical Can remove if small and rostral, need 2-3 cm margins.
What are the most common intestinal tumors in dogs?
adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Also get leimyosarcoma and GIST
What are the most common intestinal tumors in cats?
Lymphoma. Also get adenocarcinoma and a little bit of mast cell tumors.
How do you treat intestinal carcinomas?
Surgically excise with 5 cm margins. (more caudal are less aggressive)
Do intestinal carcinomas metastasize?
Yes. 50% metastasize to lymph nodes
How do intestinal sarcomas behave, compared to intestinal carcinomas?
They are slower to invade and metastasize.
How do you treat intestinal lymphoma?
Chemo. In dog, mean survival time is only 4 months. In cats 1 year.
What causes periana adenomas?
Testosterone
How do you treat periana adenomas?
Neuter dog. May just regress
What are teh forms of perianal tumors?
Adenoma and adenocarcinoma
Do perianal adenocarcinomas metastasize?
Yes. To lymph nodes and occasionally lungs.
How do you treat perianal adenocarcinomas?
Surgery. Maybe radiation.
Do AGASACAs metastasize?
Yes, commonly to lymph nodes, later to lungs.
If a cat has bilateral kidney tumors, what kind of cancer does it have?
Lymphoma
If the cat's got unilateral kidney tumor, what is it probably?
Carcinoma
WHere does renal lymphoma tend to metastasize in the cat?
CNS. Can get hind limb paralysis
What are common causes of stranguria and hematuria?
UTI, neoplasia, pyelonephritis, uroliths, hydroureter, ureteral stones
What changes would be seen in bloodwork of an animal with a urinary tumor?
Anemia EPO, bleeding, chronic disease), Polycythemia (EPO), Azothemia, electrolyte abnormalities, leukocytosis, high BUN with normal creatinine=ulcers
A dog with a bilateral renal tumor would likely have what kind of cancer?
66% chance carcinoma, 33% chance sarcoma
Where do renal tumors commonly metastasize to?
lymph nodes, liver. Locally invade vena cava. Cats-42% have lung mets at time of diagnosis
What should you not use to biopsy the kidney? Why?
Tru cut. Kidneys bleed a lot
How should you treat a cat or dog with renal lymphoma?
Chemo
How should you treat a cat or dog with renall carcinoma? Or dog with adenocarcinoma?
Nephrectomy after doing GFR
What kind of tumor are most bladder tumors?
Transitional cell carcinoma. Can be SCC, sarcoma or rhabdomyosarcomas
What dogs are predisposed to bladder tumors?
Scotties, West highland wheaton terriers, Beagles, shelties
What can you see in a UA to diagnose a bladder tumor?
anaplastic epithelial cells
Why are UTIs common findings in cases of bladder tumors?
Mucosa of bladder is compromised
How can you do a cytology on a bladder tumor?
Traumatic catheterization. No FNA! TUMOR SEEDING
How can you biopsy a bladder?
Traumatic catheterization, surgical biopsy (also get lymph nodes), cytoscopy
Where do cat bladder tumors arise?
50% APICAL, 50% TRIGONE
Where do dog bladder tumors arise?
Trigone
Do bladder tumors metastasize?
Yes, in dogs 40% met at diagnosis. Met to lung, lymph nodes, bone. Cats- 20% met at diagnosis
How do you treat bladder tumors in cats?
Resect if localized and apical. If diffuse, treat medically
How do you treat bladder tumors in dogs?
Surgery if apical and localized. Medical if otherwise. Don't use piroxicam and cisplatin together because they are nephrotoxci. Use piroxicam and mitoxantrone
What are palliative treat ments for bladder tumors?
Tube cystotomy. Urethral stent. Radiation and mitoxantrone and piroxicam
What happens during G1 phase?
Proteins and enzymes for DNA synthesis are produced
What happens during S phase?
DNA is synthesized
What happens during G2 phase?
Proteins adn enzymes needed for protein synthesis, RNA synthesis and mitotic spindle formation are produced
When do non-cycle specific chemo drugs work?
At any point in the cell cycle
What are the implications of the gompertzian growth curve?
It's best to attack cancers with chemo while cancer is in exponential growth phase
What is goldie-colman?
Theory that in every one million cells there will be one that will develop a mutation to make it drug resistant.
What besides DNA mutation confers drug resistance to tumor cells?
Anatomic compartment (brain, eye, testes) and tumor microenvironment (interstitial fluid bathing cancer cells has high pressure and poorly organized vasculature)
What cell does osteosarcoma arise from?
osteoblast
What part of the bone does osteosarcoma form in?
Metaphysis
What is the anatomic location of most appendicular osteosarcoma?
Away from elbow, toward the knee. Plus, distal tibia
(distal radius, proximal humerus, proximal tibia)
Which genes are frequently mutated in osteosarcoma?
p53 and pRB. Also c-sis, c-myc and MET (oncogenes)
What are poor prognostic factors in osteosarcoma?
Mets at diagnosis, elevated ALP, low percent tumor necrosis after chemo and radiation, increased tumor microvascular density
Which chemo drug should never be given to animals with marginal renal function?
cisplatin
What percent of osteosarcoma patients will go on to develop pulmonary metastatic disease if treated by surgery alone?
over 90%
What does osteosarcoma look like radiographically?
Bony proliferation and lysis in metaphyseal region. Cortical lysis on either side of the marrow cavity with osteoproliferation in sunburst pattern
What tumors cross the joint space?
synovial cell sarcoma
How do you do cytology on osteosarcoma?
FNA with 19 gauge needle.
What will you see on an osteosarcoma cytology?
Large immature mesenchymal cells with intracytoplasmic or extracellular osteoid.
What are the incisional biopsy techniques used for osteosarcoma?
Jamshidi or trephin
WHere should you biopsy osteosarcoma, why?
Center of lesion. Periphery is where body is trying to repair and wall off tumor- will get reactive bone.
Does osteosarcoma met to the lymph nodes?
Uncommonly
What is the most common site of osteosarcoma metastasis?
Pulmonary parenchyma.
What is osteosarcoma treatment?
Surgically resect then do 3-6 cycles of platinum or doxorubicin-based chemo
What is required for a limb-sparing treatment?
A tumor involving less than 50% of bone and no metastatic or concurrent disease
How much does chemo increase an animal's life span over surgery alone?
From 4-5 months to 10-14 months
When can you do a pulmonary metastatectomy?
When the primary tumor has been in remission for over 300 days and only 1-2 nodules are detectable and no other concurrent disease is present and there is a long tumor doubling time
Should radiation be given to osteosarcoma patients?
Can be as a palliative treatment. Improves limb function adn quality of life in 75% of pateints for 2-4 months.
What is bisphosphonates?
Antiresorptive agent
What i sused to control hypercalcemia of malignancy?
pamidronate and zoledronate
What is samarium EDTMP?
a bone-seeking therapeutic radionucleotide
What is the most common site of axial osteosarcoma?
Mandible and maxilla. Also spine, ribs, nasal and cranium
Which axial osteosarcoma is less likely to metastasize?
mandibular. Surgery alone can provide 71% with 1 year survival.
What site of axial osteosarcoma has the highest rate of metastasis?
rib
Where can extraskeletal osteosarcoma arise?
Mammary glands
Which form of feline lymphoma is most common?
GI
What form of lymphoma i smost common in dogs?
Multicentric
What can cause canine lymphoma?
viruses, environment, IBD
How do dogs with lymphoma usually present?
With lumps under chin, not acting sick
What is the mean survival time of a dog with GI lymphoma?
10-20 days
What is the deal with lymphom ain th eliver?
If it's just in the liver- very bad, if multicentric with liver enlargement- not so bad.
WHich form of lymphoma is most associated with FeLV in cats?
Mediastinal
Is peripheral node involvement more common in dog or cat lymphoma?
Dog
Is liver/spleen involvement more common in dog lymphom aor cat?
Dog
Do dogs or cats get GI lymphoma more?
Cats
Do dogs or cats get cutaneous lymphoma?
Dogs more than cats
What are bad prognostic factors for lymphoma in dogs?
hypercalcemia, over 50% of bone marrow effected, T-lymphocyte phenotype, sick at diagnosis (substage B), cranial mediastinal masses
If untreated how long can a dog with lymphoma live?
4-6 weeks
How long can a dog live treated with prednisone?
11 weeks
How long can a dog treated with multidrug chemo live?
one year
What are bad prognostic factors in cats?
FeLV+ (shorter remisison times), not responding to first few chemo treatments (only 1/3 respond)
Which lymphomas respond the best to treatment?
Nasal, peripheral nodes in dogs. Gi can be okay in cats. Renal can be okay. Mediastinal can be okay in cats. Ocular can be okay
Which lymphomas dont respond well to treatment?
GI in dogs, cutaneous, spinal, leukemia
What percentage blasts from lymph nodes is considered diagnostic for lymphoma?
over 50%
If you have a small cell lymphoma what is necessary for diagnosis?
Removign the node and seeing if architecture is destroyed
Why do UA for lymphoma?
Check for UTI because chemo will immunosuppress patient
What can be on a lymphoma CBC?
normal or cytopenias or leukemia. Immune mediated hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow involvement
What can you see on a lymphoma chemistry?
normal or organ involvement (liver enzymes), hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia due to antibody preoduction by tumore cells
What staging tests shoudl you do for lymphoma?
Thoracic, abdominal rads, abdominal ultrasound, tissue biopsy, bone marrow aspirate
What percent of multicentric lymphoma patients respond to chemo?
65-90% with complete remission in first few weeks of chemo. Lasts 6-10 months
What percent of cats with GI lymphoma respond to multidrug chemo?
33%. 1 year mean survival time
What confers chemo resistance resistance to lymphoma cells?
P-glycoprotein pump.