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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When signals trigger osteoblasts to lay down bone what other cell do they affect?
Osteoclasts are typically inhibited by the same signals
What are the 5 functions of bone?
1. Support & shape
2. Protection
3. Allow movement
4. Calcium & phosphate homeostasis
5. Blood cell production
What is ground substance composed of?
1. extracellular fluid
2. chondroitin sulfate
3. hyaluronan
What are the 3 components of the non-cellular portion of bone?
1. collagen matrix
2. hydroxyapatite
3. ground substance
what provides tensile strength to bones?
What lays down the collagen for bone?
After collagen is synthesized is polymerizes to form ______.
Osteoid (an organic matrix)
What ions/molecules do osteoblasts secrete?
calcium Ca++
phosphate HPO42
hydroxyl ions OH-
What is the recipe for precipitation of hydroxyapatite?
osteoblast -> Collagen -> polymerize -> osteoid -> hydroxyl ion -> high pH of osteoid -> Ca++ & HPO42 supersaturation ->
What is the formula for hydroxyapatite?
What is the make-up of collagen?
1. Triple helix of 3 alpha (polypeptide) chains
2. proline, lysine, & glycine
What is an important consideration of lysine & proline in collagen?
they can be hydroxylated
What are the four different general forms of collagen?
Gel: stiffen (ECM)
Bundle: strength (tendons)
Stacked: cornea (stiff but transmits light)
Angled bundle: bone (strength in 3 axes)
Where is type I collagen (fibril) found?
bone, skin, tendon, cornea, organs
Where is type II collagen (fibril) found?
Cartilage,vitreous humor
Where is type III collagen (fibril) found?
Skin, vessels, organs
What digests collagen?
How do you create collagen?
1. prepro-alpha-polypeptide is made @ the RER
2. gets cleaved -> pro-alpha chain
3. Pro-alpha chain is HYDROXYLATED in the RER & golgi
4.hydroxylysines are GLYCOSYLATED on the pro-alpha chain
5. procollagen (triple helix) begins to form in the golgi by using DISULFIDE BONDS between 3 pro-alpha chains
6. procollagen is exocytosed into the ECM
7. N-procollagen peptidase & C-procollagen peptidase clip the C&N terminus to form collagen
8. lysyl oxidase forms cross links with other collagen molecules
9. Many collagen fibrils form a collagen fiber