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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Core Vocabularies
The most basic and long-lasting words in any language- pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects.
Linguistic Nationalism
The attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms.
Gendered Speech
Distinct male and female syntax exhibited in various languages around the world.
Displacement
The ability to refer to things and events removed in time and space.
Naming Ceremony
A special event or ritual to mark the naming of an individual or thing.
Independence Training
Child-rearing practices that promote independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement on the part of the child.
Intersexuals
People born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female.
Convergent Evolution
A process by which unrelated populations develop similarities to one another.
Culture Area
A geographic region in which a number of societies follow similar patterns of life.
Hunter Gatherer
self explanatory
Swidden Farming
Also known as slash-and-burn. An extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops then planted among the ashes, which fertilize the soil.
Pastoralism
Breeding and managing of herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels.
Egalitarian
Societies in which everyone has about equal access to and power over basic resources.
Phonology
The study of language sounds.
Morphemes
The smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning, but have no meaning by themselves.
Gesture
Facial expressions and bodily postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages.
Paralanguage
Voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning. These include vocalization such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo.
Vocal Characterizers
In paralanguage, vocalizations such as laughing, crying, yawning, or "breaking," which the speaker "talks through."
Tonal Language
A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pron8unciation and meaning.
Linguistic Divergence
The development of different languages from a single ancestral language.
Pidgin
A language in which the syntax and vocabulary of two other languages are simplified and combined.
Ethnolinguistics
A branch of linguistics that studies the relationsihp between language and culture.
Dialects
Varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible.
Alphabet
A series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order.
Personality
The distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves.
Modal Personality
The body of character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a culturally bounded population.
Transgenders
People who crossover or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction.
Parallel Evolution
In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike.
Culture Core
Cultural features that are fundamental in a society's way of makeing its living- including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and work arrangements involved in a pplying those techniques to the local environment.
Horticulture
Cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Transhumance
In pastoralism, the pattern of strict seasonal movement between highlands and lowlands.