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89 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
steady-state physiological condition of the body
-ability to regulate the internal environment
Thermoregulation
how organisms regulate their body temp
Osmoregulation
how organisms regulate solute balance and gain/loss of water
Excretion
how organisms get rid of nitrogenous wastes
Ectotherm
an organism whose body temp is determined by external enviroment (ambient temp) cold blooded
Endotherm
an organism whose body temp is determined by internal environment (warm blooded)
Ammonia
NH3
most toxic nitrogenous waste, soluable in water
-excreted by most aquatic organisms
-in terrestrial animals, energy must be spent to convert it to urea or uric acid
Urea
-nitrogenous waste
-can be excreted in more concentrated form= water conservation in terrestrial animals
-produced in liver
Uric Acid
nitrogenous waste
-excreted by some land snails, insects, birds, reptiles
-excreted as a precipitate after water has been reabsorbed
Osmoconformers
organisms that maintain osmoregulation at same level as external environment (aquatic/marine organisms)
Osmoregulators
organisms that actively discharge or take in water
Osmoregulation in Marine Invertebrates
live in salt water
isotonic body fluid
excrete ammonia
urine is isotonic
Osmoregulation in Planaria
live in fresh water
hypertonic body fluid
need to loose water
excrete ammonia
urine is hypotonice
Osmoregulation in Marine Bony Fish
live in salt water
hypotonic body fluids
need to gain water
excrete ammonia
urine is isotonic
Osmoregulation in Sharks
live in salt water
isotonic body fluid
no net loss or gain of water
excrete urea
urine is isotonic
Osmoregulation in Frogs
live in fresh water
body fluid hypertonic
need to lose water
excrete urea
urine is iso/hypotonic
Osmoregulation in Rats
live on land
body fluids hypotonic
need to gain water
excrete urea
long loops of henle
urine is hypertonic
Osmoregulation in Marine Mammals
live in salt water
hypotonic body fluid
need to gain water
excrete urea
have loops of henle
urine is hypertonic
Osmoregulation in Humans
body fluid strongly hypotonic
need to gain water
excrete urea
long loops of henle
urine is hypertonic
How animals solve water balance problems
transport epithelium- proteins for passive and active transport
insect excretory system
malpighian tubules made up of transport epithelium
-excretory and digestive system connected
-hindgut reabsorbs important molecules before excretion
parts of the kidney
-outer renal cortex
-inner renal medulla
-within each region are microscopic nephrons
-renal pelvis- collects urine
Functions of the Nephron
1. filtration of blood
2. secretion of substances into filtrate
3. reabsorption of water, sugar, vitamins etc through loops of henle
4. excretion of urine
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
-secreted when there is a high solute conc. in the blood
-causes the transport epithelium of the collecting ducts to become more permeable to water
evolution of the vertebrate kidney
-first in freshwater fish
-fish, amphibian and reptile kidneys can only produce dilute urine
-loops of henle only in birds and mammals, can excrete hypertonic urine
cloaca
adaptation in reptiles
reabsorbs water from urine as urine is excreted.
kidneys produce dilute urine
nerve net
nervous system of hydra and other cnidarians
-no central control
radial nervous system
found in jellyfish, sea stars
-some degree of centralization
Bilatterally arranged nervous system
usually have a CNS and PNS
CNS consists of one or more nerve chords (thick bundles of nerves) that run from head to posterior end
Hormones
chemical substances produced and transported within an organism to bring about a physiological response
target cells
have receptors that recognize hormone and respond
site of hormone production in plants v. animals
-in plants, produced by tissue that is also used for some other function

-in animals usually produced in specialized tissue that serves only to produce hormones
Major types of plant hormones
1. Auxins- growth & cell division, phototropism
2. Cytokinins- cell division
3. Gibberellins- stem elongation & seed germination
4. Ethylene- leaf, flower, fruit detatchment and fruit ripening
5. Abscisic acid- deterioration w/age & stomaal closure/opening
neurosecretory cells
neurons that respond to stimuli by releasing hormones
endocrine cells
found in endocrine glands- secrete hormones
Endocrine glands
produce hormones and secrete them into body fluids
-are ductless
Exocrine glands
produce a variety of substances, convey them directly to their target via ducts
Islets of Langerhans
endocrine producing cells located in the pancreas
alpha cells
in islets of langerhans in the pancreas
- produce glucagon (raises blood glucose level)
beta cells
in lslets of langerhands in pancreas
-produce insulin (takes glucose out of the blood)
endocrine glands that are controlled by the nervous system
hypothalamus and pituitary gland
-secrete hormones that stimulate growth in their target organs
the blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
carbon dioxide
air flows in one direction through the lungs of which animal?
birds
where is velocity of blood flow the lowest and why
capillaries because they have the most surface area
what is the main cause of guttation in plants?
root pressure
the hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile
CCK (cholecystokinin)
systole
contraction phase
diastole
relaxation phase
what travels through the phloem and in what direction
sugar, movement can occur both up and down
-source to sink
the chambers of the heart that recieve the blood returning to the heart
the atrium
the chamber of the heart that pumps oxygenated blood out
left ventricle
diploid phase in plants
sporophyte
haploid phase of plant life cycle
gametophyte
which of the flowering plants were the first to evolve seeds
gymnosperms
pseudocoelomates
animals that have a body cavity located between the endoderm and mesoderm tissue
protosomes
animals in which the first opening (blastopore) to the embyonic gut becomes the mouth
deuterostomes
animals in which the first opening to the embryonic gut becomes the anus
in which types of plants is the sporophyte the dominant part of the life cycle?
ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms, vascular plants
what are the characteristics of chordates
at some time in their lives they have
-a nerve cord
-a notochord
-pharyngeal slits
-a postanal tail
example of nonvascular plants
mosses
oviparous
internal fertilization
eggs hatch outside of the mothers body
vivparous
internal fertilization
give birth to live young
gastulation
invagination of cells of the blastula
neurulation
development of a notocord and dorsal nerve cord
morula
embryo stage of development consisting of a solid ball of 32 cells
cleavage
period of rapid cell division
embryo does not increase in overall size
sequence of vertebrate development starting with fertilization
fertilization
cleavage
gastrulation
neurulation
neural crest formation
organogenesis
what is double fertilization
occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants, seeds enclosed in carpel)
one sperm fertilizes the egg, another fertilizes the polar nuclei which becomes the endosperm
topsoil consists of
minerals, living organisms, humus
most important mineral nutrients for plants
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
salivary amylase
enzyme present in saliva
breaks down starch
what are the developmental layers of each germ layer
ectoderm- skin
mesoderm- blood vessels, bones
endoderm- lining of digestive, respiratory tract etc
definition of asexual reproduction
when the offspring's genes come from the same parent without the fusion of gametes
definition of sexual reproduction
when haploid gametes fuse together to form a diploid zygote
similar due to common ancestry
homologous
the key event in the formation of new species
formation of reproductive barriers
"biological species concept"
punctuated equilibrium
pace of evolution
periods of little change followed periods of rapid change
Cladistics
method of classification of species
-grouped according to shared derived characteristics
taxa should be monphyletic
sympatric speciation
when a new species arises within range of the parent population
allopatric speciation
geographic isolation propagates a speciation event
convergent evolution
when two unrelated species develop traits similar to one another due to similar habitats
what is the smallest unit that can evolve
a population
mullerian mimicry
when two of more unrelated but protected species resemble one another
batesian mimicry
when a harmless species resembles a harmful one
do fungi produce sexually or asexually?
both
vestigial structures
structures that no longer have a function to an organism but resemble structures of presumed ancestors
endosymbionic theory
mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living cells
survivorship curves
Type I- increased risk of dying when older
Type II- equal change of dying at any age (ie:hydra)
Type III- greater chance of dying when young (ie: clams)
aposematic coloration
advertising of chemical defenses by having bright color patterns