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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is Virchow's triad and when is it seen?
1. endothelial injury
2. hypercoagulable state
3. circulatory stasis
*seen in clotting disorders
name some diseases that contribute to a hyperthrombotic state (5)
1. DM
2. hypertension
3. hyperlipidemia
4. cancer
5. obesity
name some medications that contribute to a hypercoaguable state (4)
1. OCs
2. HRT
3. Thalidomide
4. Cox-2 inhibitors
what are some mechanical factors that contribute to a prothrombitic state? (3)
1. surgery
2. immobilization
3. trauma
anticoagulant therapies can target either the arterial or the venous side. for each of the following therapies: state what side they affect.
1. Aspirin
2. tPA
3. heparin
4. warfarin
5. clopidogrel
1. arterial
2. arterial or venous
3. venous
4. venous
5. arterial
which clotting factor does LMWH inhibit?
factor IIa
(also factor Xa)
what test is used to monitor heparin?
1. which type of clot is known as a red clot?
2. which type of clot is known as a white clot?
1. venous clot (contains primarily fibrin)
2. arterial clot (contains primarily platelets)
what is the major complication seen in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome?
increased arterial and venous thrombotic risk
what are the two therapies for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome?
1. aspirin
2. warfarin
what are the clinical risks of an antithrombin III, protein C or S deficiency?
pregenancy associated with a high risk
what is administered as therapy for hyperhomocysteinemia?
what test is elevated in a case of DVT or PE?
therapies for DVT? (2)
which anticoagulant cannot be used during pregnancy?
(Heparin can be used b/c it doesn't cross the placenta)
whay are first trimester miscarriages more common in hypercoagulable states?
blood clots form in the placenta
what are some classic clinical s/s seen in disorders of platelet and blood vessel wall interaction?
1. epistaxis
2. external bleeding everywhere!
3. iron deficiency
with what deficiency would you see the "fingerprint sign"?
(spontaneous bruising)
disorders of fibrin generation
describe the bleeding seen in disorders of fibrin formation.
- internal bleeding
- delayed bleeding (ie. in surgery)
- hematuria
- iron deficiency NOT a feature
how does a resting platelet become activated?
by coming into contact with collagen
what happens when a platelet is activated?
1. pseudopods form
2. granules "shoot out" via cannalicular system (need Ca++ for this to occur)
3. activated platelets then spit out ADP to activate surrounding platelets
what molecule binds platelets together?
(via glc IIB/IIIa receptors)
what molecule binds platelets to the vessel wall?
(glc Ib is recepor on plts)
besides collagen and ADP, what other molecules can stimulate platelet aggregation? (4)
1. Thrombin
2. Thromboxane A2
3. platelet activating factor
4. epinephrine
describe the primary and secondary waves of platelet aggragation...
1. primary wave - activated by collagen
2. secondary wave - activated by already activated platelets (they spit out ADP which activates surrounding plts)
a damaged endothelial cell releases __________, which activates the extrinsic coagulation cascade.
tissue factor
fibrin generation is restricted to the sites of injury. why?
this prevents generalized thrombosis / DIC
1. A red topped blood collection tube contains ?
2. what happens to blood when it enters the tube?
1. nothing
2. blood coagulates, forming a serum level and a clot level
1. a "tiger topped" tube contains?
2. blood looks like?
1. coagulation activating gel
2. blood also separates into serum and clot
1. a green topped tube contains?
2. blood looks like?
1. heparin
1. a purple tube contains?
2. blood looks like?
1. EDTA (Ca++ binder)
(EDTA removes Ca++ from plasma; plts can't bind to clotting factors without Ca++ = no clot)
1. A yellow top tube contains?
2. blood looks like?
1. citrate
2. same as purple tube
when blood is in a tube and it doesn't clot - what layers does it separate into?
plasma (fibrinogen and clotting factors)

1. PTT measures the clotting time of which pathway?
2. PT measures clotting time of which pathway?
1. intrinsic
2. extrinsic
the TT test is a direct measure of?
thrombin (IIa) activity
inheritance pattern of vWD?
autosomal dominant
hemophilia A is primarily a disorder of?
factor VIII
(fibrin generation)
inheritance pattern of hemophilia A?
hemophilia A displays changes in which lab test?
prolonged PTT
inheritance pattern of severe (type III) vWD?
autosomal recessive
type III vWD presents with what lab abnormality?
prolonged PTT
Hemophilia B is a deficiency of?
factor IX
(fibrin generation disorder)
hypofibrinogenemia is a deficiency in?
factor I
inheritance pattern of hypofibrinogenemia?
autosomal dominant
lab test changes seen in hypofibrinogenemia?
prolonged PTT, PT
(hemorrhagic and thrombotic risk)
inheritance pattern of factor two deficiency
autosomal recessive
lab test changes seen in factor II deficiency?
prolonged PT, PTT
lab test seen in factor VII deficiency?
prolonged PT
factor VII deficiency in neonates carries an increased risk of?
neonatal CNS bleed
inheritance pattern of protein C or S deficiency?
autosomal dominant
factor V Leiden deficiency is associated with?
increased risk of DVT, PE
(risk of arterial disease not increased)
describe the levels of the following in early DIC
1. coagulation factors
2. D-Dimer
3. PTT
4. platelets
1. increased
2. increased
3. decreased
4. normal
describe the levels of the following in late DIC
1. coagulation factors
2. D-Dimer
4. platelets
1. decreased
2. increased
3. increased
4. decreased
this protozoa causes...?
amoebic meningioencephalitis
this protozoa causes...?
Trympanosoma brucei
african sleeping sickness
this protozoa causes...?
Trympanosoma cruzi
Chagas disease
this protozoa causes...?
Leischmania donovani
this protozoa causes...?
this protozoa causes...?
Toxoplasma gondii
this flatworm causes?
this filarial roundworm causes?
Wucheraria bancrofti, Brugia malayi
this filarial roundworm causes?
Loa loa
calabar swelling
this filarial roundworm causes?
Onchocera volvulus?
river blindness
main symptoms and presentation of amoebic meningioencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri?
- enters body via nasal mucosa
- meningioencephalitis causing death within one week
reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei (af. sleeping sickness)?
Tse-tse fly
reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi?
Reduviid bug
two phases of chagas disease? difference between the two?
1. Acute phase - periorbital edema, fever
2. chronic phase - UNDETECTABLE PARASITEMIA, causes cardiomyopathy, autoimmune disease
what type of cells does Leischmania prefers to infect and where do they "live?"
macrophages in the skin and viscera
insect vector for leischmania
what is the sole mammalian reservoir of plasmodium species?