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30 Cards in this Set

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In an exophoric eye, light will fall on the _____ part of the retina but appears on the _____ part of the patient's visual field
temporal, nasal
-____ are monocular eye movements
-Both eyes moving in the same direction are called ___
-Both eyes moving in opposite directions are called _____
ductions, versions, vergences
The near triad consists of
Accomodation, convergence, and miosis
Increasing accomodation will ALWAYS cause an increase in
convergence and miosis
minus lenses ______ accomodation and plus lenses _____ accomodation
stimulate, relax
minus lenses ____ an exophore and ____ an esophore where as plus lenses do the opposite
reduce, increase
What is the purpose of Von Graefe phoria?
To measure subjectively the relative horizontal or vertical deviation of the eyes, one with respect to the other when fusion is interrupted using prisms
What are the prism specifications for Von Graefe phorias?
6^BD OD, 12^BI OS
When testing lateral phorias the patient should focus on the ______ target
upper
When testing vertical phorias the patient should focus on the _____ target
lower
What should you always ask the patient before beginning to test phorias?
Do you see 2 targets one up and one down?
-If patient is ortho the should see____
-If patient is 12 XP should see _____
-If patient is EP than should see______
-if patient is >12XP than will see _____
-one up and one down to the left
-one right on top of the other
-more eso is created
-one up and one down and to the right
What are the instructions given when testing lateral phorias?
focus on the upper target and let me know when the other lines up like buttons on a shirt
Should the line of letters be vertical or horizontal when testing lateral phorias
vertical
What is the next step in measuring lateral phorias after verifying the patient sees two targets?
Decrease the BI prism until the two lines are vertically aligned
What do you record for lateral phorias?
magnitude and direction of the phoria
If BI than the patient is ___

If BO than the patient is ___
Exophoric

Esophoric
What is the difference in Von Graefe phorias and the Flash technique?
When using the flash technique you occlude the eye with the measuring prism (OS)...remove the occluder briefly giving the patient the same instructions as before
What is the benefit of doing the Flash technique?
the patient has no opportunity to make fusional movements
What is the target for measuring vertical phorias?
a horizontal line of letters one line above BVA
What are the instructions for measuring vertical phorias once you verify the patient can see two lines?
Focus on the lower target and let me know when the upper target lines up like headlights on a car
Which prism do you change when measuring vertical phorias?
The BD prism
What do you record for vertical phorias?
magnitude and the hyper eye

EX: 1 R Hyper
What are the similarities between measuring lateral and vertical phorias at distance?
Place the distance PD and the manifest in the phoropter in dim light
What are the similarities between measuring lateral and vertical phorias at near?
Place the near PD and the near correction in the phoropter in bright light with stand lamp
What is a difference between measuring near and distance phorias?
When measuring near phorias the patient could compensate the 12 BI before the test begins
If the patient can compensate for 12^BI than what is the next step?
Either increase the BI or make it 12^BO
What are some things that can be done if the patient only sees one image?
-check that both lens wells are open
-change magnitude of the prism
-recheck PD
What are some advantages to measuring phorias with Von Graefe?
-fine control of prism magnitude
-relatively quick
-in phoropter makes it easier for the patient
-can easily determine the gradient AC/A
What are some of the disadvantages of Von Graefe phorias?
-less info than the cover test
-peripheral fusion is restricted due to phoropter
-limited to primary gaze
-depends on patient response b/c it is subjective