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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 Nominal Scale The scale of measurement for a variable when the dat use labels or names to identify an attirbute of an element. Nominal dad may be nonnumeric or numeric. "categories, names" ***qualitative*** Ordinal Scale A nominal scale in which order or rank is meaningful. "categories, names" ***qualitative*** Interval Scale A scale in which all the data is numeric and there is NO TRUE ZERO! ***Quanitative*** Ratio Scale A scale in which all data is numeric and the ratio of two values is meaningful. Has a true zero. ***Quanitative*** Qualitative Data Includes Nominal and Ordinal Scales in which labels or names are used to identify an attribute of each element Quantitative Data Numeric Values that indicate how much or how many of something. (interval and ratio scales) Cross-Sectional Data Data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time. Time Series Data Data collected over several time periods Population Vs. Sample Sample is a subset of the population Relative Frequency The percentage a certain element is of the entire sample. Histogram A bar chart used for quantitative data in which there is no space between the bars (frequency, relative frequency, and percent frequency) Cumlative Frequency The total frequency of anything in that range or lower Ogive A line graph for a cumulative frequency (relative and percent included) - always increasing Measures of Location Includes numerical values for mean median and mode 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Quartiles 25th, 50th (median), and 75th percentiles Variance measure of variability that utilizes all the data; a larger variance shows a larger variablity Standard Deviation The square root of the variance, shows varability Coefficient of Variation helps you compare the variability of variables that have different standard deviations and different means - a percentage of what the standard deviation is of the mean Skewness Skewness talks about the tail - to the left = negative, to the right = positive Left Skewed (negative) mean is less than median Right Skewed (positive) mean is greater than median Symmetric Distribution Mean = Median Z-score Number of standard deviations is a particular element is away from the mean; anything with a Z-score of +-3 is considered an outlier (bell shaped distributions) Five Number Summary Min, Q1, Q2(median), Q3, Max Covariance Tries to predict the correlation between two variables. If its postive, its positively related and vice versa. If its zero, there is no relation ***larger covariance doesnt mean more correlated*** Correlation Coefficient 1 = perfect positive linear relationship 0 = no relationship -1 = perfect negative linear relationship Conditional Probability When a given event has already occured, the original event's proability changes on that condition Joint Probability A probability that is the intersection of two events Example: Proability they got promoted and they are a man etc... Marginal Probabilities Found in the margins of the joint probability table, just a single variable Independent Events Events are independent if a given event has no affect on the original event