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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the belief that benefits should be distributed according to the value of the contribution made by the individual to a group.
capitalist justice
the requirement that I must act such that the maxim of my action could be made universal law (or the requirement that in acting I always treat others as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end).
concrete communities and communal relationships have fundamental value that should be preserved and maintained.
communitarian ethic
the belief that persons should have restored to them what they lose as the result of another's wrong action.
compensatory justice
analyzes desirability of a project by comparing present and future economic benefits to present and future economic costs.
cost-benefit analysis
productive societies incorporate inequalities, but work to improve the position of the neediest.
difference principle
concerned with the fair distribution of society's benefits and burdens; the belief that individuals who are similar in all relevant respects should be given similar benefits and burdens.
distributive justice
producing desired output with lowest resource input.
equality of income and wealth, and equality of opportunity.
economic equality
the belief that every person should be given exactly equal shares of a group's benefits and burdens.
egalitarian justice
emphasizes care for the well-being of those close to us.
ethic of care
evaluates the moral character of individuals or groups.
ethic of virtue
goods valued only because they lead to other good things.
instrumental goods
things desired independently of any benefits they may produce.
intrinsic goods
how benefits and burdens are distributed among people.
associated with John Rawls; the belief that the distribution of benefits and burdens in a society is just only if each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberties compatible with similar liberties for all, and social and economic inequalities are arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged and attached to offices and positions open to all fairly and equally.
justice as fairness
entitlements derived from a legal system.
legal rights
the belief that freedom from human constraint is necessarily good, and thus that constraints imposed by others are necessarily evil.
the reason a person in a certain situation has for doing what she or he plans to do.
rights possessed by all human beings simply by virtue of being human.
moral rights
an acquired disposition that is valued as part of the character of a morally good human being and that is exhibited in the person habitual behavior.
moral virtue
duties others have to not interfere in certain activities of the person who holds a given right.
negative rights
goods such as life, love, and freedom, whose value cannot be equaled by any quantity of any economic good.
noneconomic goods
according to Rawls, the situation of a group that would say a principle is morally justified; they must be rational self-interested persons who know they will live in a society governed by the principles they accept but who do not know the race, sex, religion, social position, interests, or abilities that they will have.
"original position"
equal participation in, and treatment by, the means of controlling and directing the political system.
political equality
the duty of some other agents to provide the rights-holder with whatever is needed to pursue the rights-holder’s interests.
positive rights
each citizen’s liberties must be protected and must equal the liberties of each other citizen’s.
principle of equal liberty
everyone deserves equal opportunity to qualify for privileged positions.
principle of fair equality of opportunity
the better the quality of a person’s contribution, the more the person should receive.
each individual is obliged to work hard at his or her calling.
puritan ethic
the belief that agents should be punished or blamed for wrongdoing.
retributive justice
parties choose principles that will apply to themselves.
in general, an individual's entitlement to something; legal rights are those dictated by a system of laws; moral rights are those that permit or allow all humans to do or to have something done for them; negative rights prohibit others from interfering with an individual's actions; positive rights grant others the duty to provide an individual with something she or he needs.
the view that an individual action is right when it is required by correct moral rules and if the sum total of utilities produced if everyone were to follow the rule is greater than the sum total utilities produced if everyone did not follow the rule.
the belief that benefits should be distributed according to need and burdens according to ability.
socialist justice
principles must apply equally to everyone.
the view that actions are right when they produce the greatest net benefits or the lowest net costs.
any net benefits produced by an action.
in Rawls’ original position, the rational person’s ignorance of his or her own status.
veil of ignorance
belief that the aim of the moral life is to develop moral virtues, and to use them.
virtue theory
the high value placed on individual effort; belief that hard work leads to success.
work ethic