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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Is ethics a personal issue?
Yes and no. There are certain general standards. It can be found a history of incidents (unethical issues), and pluralistically society contests the issue of what's right.
What are the reasons of good people doing bad things?
1 - too entusiastic, not being able to see what is beside you (get caught up in business and competition)
2 - Following orders
3 - Forget about social context, ignoring that ethics is related to economical enterprise b/c affects people
What example did she give on ethics?
That the damage the tragedy of the twin towers caused was bigger than the corporate immorality (destruction of moral principles) in the U.S.
What if more laws and regulations were created?
Studies prove that "unethical" companies do better with laws than moral com.
How should ethics start?
With core values that should be practiced.
What example did the lecturer give about ethics and capitalist success?
From 1920 - 1994 , the best cias in America were Disney, JJ, and Motorolla, JJ with profitability being n.10 goal of cia.
What does the story "Ring of Gyges" tell us about the reasons for being good?
Because we'd be punished if we didn't
What does Hobbes say about making rules?
Because we'd be in peril if we didn't. The State of Nature: equal needs; equal power; scarcity; self-interest. This amounts to a state of war. A war
of all against all.
What is the critique of Psychological Egoism?
empathy; inner conflict; satisfaction a by-product, not a goal.
What is the critique about Ethical Egoism?
Advice giving; incoherence between public and private life; friendship
Boss - Ch1
What is ethics?
as a philosophical discipline, it is
the study of the values and guidelines
by which we live, as well as the
justification of those values and
guidelines (universal principles, not
cultural agreements)
Boss - Ch 2
Provide skills necessary to analyze and evaluate different moral theories and lines of reasoning.
Boss - Ch1
The pursuit of good life is our most
important activity as humans. Through
the repeated performance of good
actions we become more moral (and more
happy). Repeated practice referred to
as habituation.
Boss - Ch1
the idea of practicing good actions as
more important than studying ethics
Boss - Fallacies
What is it?
When an argument is psychologically or
emotionally persuasive, but logically
Boss - Fallacies
meaning of a term is unclear (ambiguous)
Boss - Fallacies
Appeal to force
"might is right"
Boss - Fallacies
Abusive fallacy
ad hominem - attach to character
Boss - Fallacies
Circumstancial fallacy
consider one's special circumstance
Boss - Fallacies
Appeal to inappropriate authority
priests, non-specialists
Boss - Fallacies
Popular appeal
"everyone else is doing it"
"the tyranny of majority" (Stuart Mill)
Boss - Fallacies
Hasty generalizations
use of unusual or atypical cases to
Boss - Fallacies
Fallacy of accident
accepted rule used for exception
Boss - Fallacies
Fallacy of ignorance
has to be true 'cause it is not proved
Boss - Fallacies
Begging the question
or circular reasoning
Boss - Fallacies
irrelevant conclusion
conclusions and premises don't match
Boss - Fallacies
Naturalistic fallacy
nature characteristics as evident
Boss - Fallacies
appeal to tradition
used by cultural relativists to
legitimate the status quo
The moral point of view
Morality is like...
Are there authorities?
Do they disagree?
Should we judge others?
The moral point of view
knowing others
what is right
The moral point of view
Nutrition or moral health
live well
notion of good things
self-control (physically/morally fit)
moral is harder to convince Americans
Claims change periodically
intake depends on individual differences
The Moral Point of View:
Wise or studied individuals
experts disagree about morality
conclusion: nobody knows or confidence
that if done in insightful ways, can
help us
The Moral Point of View:
what they know
There is agreement in some issues
Human data as evidence for ethics
public vs. private face
self-deception - things that you
profess, but act differently
The Moral Point of View:
To evaluate a kind of life a person
takes is proper. The point is that it
is sometimes used to condemn people.
The Moral Point of View:
A hypocrite can still make moral
remarks. People learn from their
mistakes, but some people want to learn
by themselves.
The Moral Point of View:
Knowing others
If you can know one's motivation, you
can try to judge them. People seek
understanding of others! Maybe we
can't judge motivation, but behavior
The Moral Point of View:
What is right?
Do we have legitimate ground for making
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
What does it assert?
No objective or universal moral
standards or truths
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
What are over there to rely on?
Only opinions - belifs, no reasons or
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
Is it different from skepticism
the late one does not question our ability to know moral truths.
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
What is a right act for an individual?
whatever a person belives is right for
him or her
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
How to judge moral preferences?
there are no absolute standards by which to judge a person's moral
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
What is the public opinion about
great majority of philosophers disagree
with it.
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
Differences from subjectivism
moral uncertainty, free will, ethical skepticism or emotivism (deny knowledge
of moral truth)
Ch3 - Ethical skepticism
what does it say
We cannot know with certainty whether
or not objective moral standards exist
Ch3 - Ethical emotivism
All moral statements are meaningless
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
Kitty Genovese Syndrome
An attitude of moral indifference to
another person's distress
No objective values based
Takes away responsibility
Ch3 - Ethical subjectivism
No universal moral standards
Cannot be mistaken
We judge our feelings and actions
We regard acting on certain feelings
as immoral
It is desastruous for the weak
Ch3 - Social Darwinism
Who created it?
Huxley and Spencer, based on Darwin's
theory of evolution
Ch3 - Social Darwinism
What did it say?
"rejects ethical relativism and instead
embraces an ethics based on one
universal moral principle: survival of
the fittest"
Ch3 - Social Darwinism
What are its implications?
dominant civilizations as more
developed ones. Justify the dominance
of one culture over the other.
Conscience and moral standards
Feeling guilty
religious aspect
reluctance of feeling guilty
Conscience and moral standards
being aware of moral development, and
desire to reach a higher point
Ch3 - Cultural Relativism
Moral principles vary from culture to
culture, inexistence of transcultural
moral standards.
Ch3 - Cultural Relativism
Moral community
groups granted the universal, basic
Ch3 - Cultural Relativism
Abstract circle, position defining
privileges in societies.
Ch3 - Cultural Relativism
To go against social darwinism,
forgot about common standards. Forgot
about countergroups in each society.
Ch3 - Cultural Relativism
illogical, does not work in
pluralistically societies, confuses
custom with morality, group lack of
morality, we/they mentality,
inexistence of common standards
Worksheet - Subjectivism and relativism
Tolerance (or indifference)
Dignifies us (or demans)
Worksheet - Subjectivism and relativism
Worksheet - Subjectivism and relativism
there are moral standards
excuse making
moral progress
judge and commend
Worksheet - Subjectivism and relativism
relativism or absolutism
a middle way: discuss and search
Conscience and moral standards
development of conscience
Psycho studies prove that there is
something original (basic sense of
justice) plus social conditioning
We cannot only be shaped (not plastic)
Conscience and moral standards
Conscience division
affective (worse press attention) and
Conscience and moral standards
Sympathy for the other - relate to the world, removes egocentric view
Helper's high - phy, emot, psy rejuvenation
Moral outrage
Moral Development
What is guilt
when we cross the line of our morals
Moral Development
maybe as human beings we develop our
morals in a certain way
Keen eye towards the world
Similarity bet individualism, subject,
impossible to search for a better life
no moral truth applies to all
Similarity between ethics and arts
Its not a data vs opinion issue, but having good reasons to support.
Stages by Piaget
Pre-conventional (personal)
Conventional (sociological)
Post-conventional (conscience and
autonomous thinking)
Women's point of view
self / self sacrificing / balanced
What are the components that make moral values
Moral Development
What is the criticism against stages?
Were created in the 70's, using as
subjects male college students.
Moral Development
How are female ways of moral
development different?
Masculinity - gender identity formed by separation and independence
Feminity - female gender identity is
threatened by individualization,
we have closer bounds w fewer women
Ring of Gyges
Glaucon - story to illustrate truth
about us and justice
We behave morally only if there is some
form of social control (punishment)
By nature, we act according to our self
Ring of Gyges - what is more benefitial
awards of immorality are bigger than
If had ring but didn't use it, we would
be fools
Sharp criticism of "Good for its own
Social Darwinism
Reinforces self-interest
Claim of how we ought to live
Moral development stages - 1st egoism
Life before civilization
We create rules in society to protect
ourselves from a brutal death
Complete chaos w/o moral rules - no
right or wrong
Biological right to dominate
Psychological Egoism
We are in a struggle for survival
Description of our self-interest
Altruism or self-sacrifice is
Unfalsifiable - no opposing alternative
Empathy - ability to feel others
Helper's high - isn't only self-
Ethical egoism
maybe we don't always act on our self-interest. But don't. The world would be a better place if all played the
Egoism and Capitalism
based on demand, popularity in real
life, but can we base on it our moral
Egoism and Capitalism
to maximize self-interest
Egoism and Capitalism
Morals and culture
supposed negative effects (Novak)
Egoism and Capitalism
Virtuous self-interest
Greed will be punished
Includes others
Social virtuous (trust, shared risk,
contacts) Novak
Egoism and Capitalism
What's real?
Egoism and Capitalism
strenghtening society because of
expanded gap bet. poor and rich
not everybody has equal opportunities
kids learn to grow from egoism to social values
-crucial for self-expression
Egoism and Capitalism
Dr. Wisfneske
Can you be a "little egoist"?
Self-preservation is not egoism
Egoism and Capitalism
Difference from psychological and
ethical egoism
descriptive as pursuing our self-
interest vs. prescription of what
ought to be
Ethical egoism - incoherent, two-faced
Egoism and Capitalism
two-way benefit?
lasts as long as it makes us feel
relationship (self - power place or
mutual relation?
Egoism and Capitalism
Ironies (Novak)
1. Cut moral values - work to have
2. Needs/want/desire
3. Politicians - promise and not follow
4. Gov't attracts a greedy class
5. Arts and mass culture - little
6. Envy - players and teachers
7. Taste - mass taste/culture
Egoism and Capitalism
Positive views (NOVAK)
1. self-interest of everyone (family,
2. Greedy would fail - internal punish.
3. Human sinfulness - ???
Subversive Virginity
Wanting is not a proper guide for
sexual conduct
Vir. creates respect for + upholds values of women
Virgin sexuality has extraordinary +
unusual power
Sex is anything but serious
Common value amongs all utilitarian theories. Actions are neither right or wrong, but it depends on its consequences. "The end justify the means."
Oriented towards the greatest net happiness for all. Also called "social hedonism".
vs. ethic egoism or hedonism
The feeling of unity - Mo Tzu called "universal love" - is rooted in our characters. The happiness of all sensient beings.
Right and wrong
Greatest happiness principle: actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. It should be impartial, each person affected should get equal consideration.
or "rule worshipers" (Smart). Should follow the rule in any particular situation.
morality of particular actions.
Stuart Mill
action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious, and that this is the ground of obligation to abstain from it.