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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
OBLIGATIONS
Requirements arising from a person's situation or circumstances (e.g., relationships, knowledge, position) that specify what must or must not be done for some moral, legal, religious, or institutional reaso
VIRTUES and VICES
Positive and negative traits of moral character, such as honesty, kindness, or being a courageous or responsible person. Notice that these terms of moral evaluation are applied to people, rather than to their actions (like rights, obligations, and moral rules) or to the outcomes they seek to achiev
MORAL STANDING
A being's moral standing determines the extent to which its well-being must be ethically considered for its own sake. To say that some group of beings have moral standing is to say that, as a moral matter, their well-being must be given some considerati
STANDARD OF CARE
The standard of care is the degree of care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in the circumstance in question. In negligence law if a person's conduct falls below such standards, he may be liable in damages for injuries or damages resulting from his conduct. In professional malpractice cases, a standard of care is applied to measure the competence as well of the degree of care shown by the professional's actions . A traditional standard for a practitioner is to "exercise the average degree of skill, care, and diligence exercised by members of the same profession (or specialty within that profession), practicing in the same or a similar locality in light of the present state of the profession" (Gillette v. Tucker). See Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edition. 1404-5.
RESPONSIBILITY, PROFESSIONAL
A paradigm case of the moral responsibility that arises from the special knowledge that one possess
RESEARCH ETHICS or the RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH CONDUCT
This term is used broadly to include many ethically significant issues that arise in research, from fair apportionment of credit among members of a research team, to responsible behavior in submitting or reviewing grant applications, to responsible treatment of research subject
THERAPEUTIC ORPHAN
A label given to children by the drug development and pharmacuetical industry. This label refers to a concern that a fear of harming individual children by exposing them to research results in harming children as a class by undermining efforts to gain knowledge about how to better treat them.
WASHOUT STUDY
A study in which patients/subjects are removed from all psychiatric medication to study baseline states or pure effects of new drug treatments.
PATENT
A (special, alienable, prima facie) legal right granted by the government to use, or at least (in the case there are other patents which your use of your patent would infringe) to bar others from using a device, design or type of plant that you have created. (In the US restrictions last for 17 years for useful devices, and 14 years for designs.) To patent a device one must prove that it is useful, original and not obvious. Patents are subject to challenge in court and may be upheld or overturned.
GOOD
The good is what it is rational to want
EVALUATION

Normative evaluation is a judgment as to whether something is good or bad in some respects, a value judgment ; Evaluation of the results is assessment of what test results indicate about some natural phenomena, or about the performance of some human artifact.
RESEARCH MISCONDUCT
This term is used rather narrowly. It does not include all violations of standards of research ethics. In particular, it is not applied to violations of the norms for the use of human or animal subjects. In the U.S. the three actions that were the initial focus of misconduct definitions were:
· Fabrication
· Falsification
· Plagiarism
PROPRIETARY/ PROPERTY RIGHTS
Proprietary rights, claims, etc. are the rights, claims, etc. of owners. Sorting out the rights that go with property ownership is rather complicated, both because of the variety of types of property and because of the problem of sorting out conflicting claims regarding property and conflicts between property rights and other rights.
PROPERTY

Very different sorts of things are regarded as property. Individual rights to property (other than clothing and other personal effects), especially the right to own land, is a major innovation in so-called modern thought. Land was one important kind of property, physical objects that constitute "the fruit of one's labor" was another. It was a short step from physical property to intellectual property, the fruit of one's intellectual labor which was given some recognition in the U.S. Constituti
TRUSTWORTHINESS

When trust is well-founded and if trust of another person or moral agent) morally sound, then it is based on trustworthiness. Put another way, that which deserves trust is trustworthy.
RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION
The right to choose one's own actions or course of life so long as doing so does not interfere unduly with the lives and actions of others.
NORMATIVE
When something, such as a standard or a judgment or evaluation, is normative, it concerns respects in which something is good or bad. Therefore, value judgments are normative, but the judgment that X is greener, or heavier, than Y is not. A standard of excellence is normative, in this sense, but a standard of measurement or a statistical norm is not. "Normative" is sometimes used more broadly to mean that which establishes or reflects any sort of standard or norm, even a statistical one
SAFETY
Freedom from danger; a property of a device or process which limits the risk of accident below some specified acceptable level.
TRUST
Trust is confident reliance
RIGHTS
Claims that have some justification behind them. A moral right is a morally justified claim. A legal right is a legally justified claim. When we use the term right without specifying the nature of the justification, we usually mean a moral right. Rights specify the acts that are permitted, forbidden, or required. If they specify the acts that the rights-holder may perform (such as vote, or drive a car), they are often called licenses. If they specify acts that others may not perform (as the right to life obliges others to refrain from killing the rights holder), they are called liberties or (in law)negative rights. If they specify what the rights-holde
TORT
A private or civil (as contrasted with criminal) wrong or injury. Sometimes "tort law" is used as a general designation to include provisions concerning breaches of contract as well as a failure in some duty. However, the term, "tort" is commonly used more narrowly to refer only to specific failure in some recognized duty, or failure to exercise reasonable prudence or care. In this narrower sense "tort" is contrasted with with "breach of contrac
CHALLENGE STUDY

Studies in which researchers intentionally give subject/patients pharmocological agents in order to induce and study psychiatric symptomology.
STANDARD
Something established as a basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity, quantity, content, value, quality, etc.; a specified set of safety or performance qualities which a device or process must possess. These must generally be demonstrated by a series of tests conducted under pre-determined conditions.
VALUES AND VALUE JUDGMENTS
Value judgments judge things to be good or bad in some respect. Moral or ethical values are only one type of value and moral evaluation is only one type of value judgment.
INFORMED CONSENT
A term used to describe the obligation of physicians or researchers to allow patients or subjects to be active participants in decision regarding their care or participation in research. Informed consent, then, is rooted in the concept of autonomous choice or the right of self-determinati
NEGLIGENCE
Failure to be sufficiently careful in a matter in which one has a moral responsibility to exercise care is negligence. Some careless mistakes are negligent, as when a surgeon sews up a patient with surgical instruments inside. Others are not, as when one dribbles soup down the front of one's sweater. A private or civil wrong or injury is called a tort, the prosecution of which tries to recover for a loss caused by someone's failure to fulfill a recognized duty owed to another, or by acting with less care than a reasonably prudent person would do under the same circumstances.
STAKEHOLDER
A person or group who can affect or is affected by an action. Responsible decision making requires consideration of the effects on all stakeholders. Usually all stakeholders are not entitled to consideration of the same aspects of their welfare, however. For example, a corporate decision may affect or be influenced by employees, stockholders, customers, suppliers, communities, some government agencies, and corporate competitors. Competitors are entitled to fairness in competition, but not to the same consideration as, say, employees.
MORAL AGENT
A being whose actions are capable of moral evaluation. We may say that an avalanche killed three people, but the avalanche is not open to moral evaluation. The avalanche is an amoral force. A competent and reasonably mature human being is the most familiar example of a moral agent. In contrast, most so-called "lower" (that is, non-human) animals are generally understood to be amoral (although this is open to debate regarding species that have complex and flexible social relations, like primates and dolphins.)
PRIVACY
It is common to distinguish three species of privacy: physical, informational, and decisional
ETHICAL RELATIVISM

Ethical relativism or "relativism" is used to indicate several different views. The first, which is also called "ethical subjectivism," is the view that the truth of some ethical judgment as applied to a person's behavior depends on whether the person believes the actions to be right or wrong