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78 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common layout style used in business writing?
Full Block style`
Modified Block style:
Date, complimentary closing, identification ( sometimes called signature block) begin center of page all other lines begin at left margin. one blank line between paragraphs
Semi-blocked style:
same as modified style except first line each paragraph is indented a 1/2 inch from left margin. Not necessary to leave blank line between paragraphs, since first line of each is indented.
3 basic punctuation styles:
Open
Mixed
Closed
Open is:
appropriate punctuation marks used in the body, other parts are not punctuated (unless line ends in an abbreviation which requires a period)
Mixed is:
appropriate punctuation marks used in body and following additional punctuation marks are used:
a colon used after salutation
a comma used after complimentary closing
other parts are not punctuated (unless line ends in a abbreviation which requires a period)
Closed is:
same as Mixed except:
a period used after date
a colon used at the end of each line in the inside address, except for last one which ends in a period.
windows:
occurs when most of paragraph printed at bottom of one page but last line of paragraph printed at top of next page.
orphans:
occurs when first line of paragraph printed at bottom of one page and rest of paragraph printed at top of next page.
5 basic objectives aim to acheive in business writing?
logic, unity, coherence
accuracy
simplicity
conciseness
courtesy
Ask yourself these basic questions about what you are going to write?
What is the purpose of the letter, memo, or document?
Who is the reader?
How will he/she react to info?
Do you have all the information required to write document?
Accuracy:
utmost importance. Content must be clear and error free. No typographical errors.
Simplicity:
language should be simple, precise, and easy to understand. Avoid complicated words.
Conciseness:
Try use short sentences and paragraphs, always ask where clarity can be improved, each sentence should express one thought. Consider using tables or charts instead of paragraphs.
Courtesy:
Aim to use each document either to build or maintain good relationship with reader. Try to use postive words.
Acronyms:
derived from the intial letter or letters of consecutive parts of a term. Example: ETA " Estimated time of arrival"
Abbreviations;
Shortened form of word or phrase, often followed by a period but not always. Example: mgr is manager
Redundant Expressions:
occurs when 2 words that mean the same thing are used together. Example: revert back to should be revert to.
Concrete words:
words that stand for objectss the reader can see, feel, or taste. They stand for things that exist in the real world. "car, plane,chair"
Abstract words;
Soon, early, late
Action verbs:
Run , Jump, push
Passive Voice VS Active Voice identify?
The work was inspected by the foreman.
The foreman inspected the work.
The work was inspected by the foreman is Passive voice.
The foreman inspected the work is the Active voice.
Avoiding camouflaged verbs:
leads to awkward sentences. This happens when the verb is changed into a noun even though it is describing the action. Example- liquidate (verb)
liquidation (noun)
Camouflaged Verb VS Clear Verb:
The secertary applied for a licence.
The secertary filed for an application for a licence.
The secertary applied for a licence is the Clear verb.
The secertary filed for an application for a licence this is the camouflaged verb.
Types of sentences:
Simple
Compound
Complex
Compound Complex
Run-on
Full Block:
all lines begin left margin
one blank between paragraphs
sometimes known as Block style
Modified Block Style:
date, complimentary closing, identification ( sometimes called signature block) begin at center of page, all other lines begin at left margin
one blank line between paragraphs
Semi-Block style:
same as modified block style except first line each paragraph is indented a 1/2 inch from left margin.
not necessary to leave blank line between paragraphs, since first line of each is indented.
Punctuation Styles:
Open
Mixed
Closed
Open:
appropriate punctuation marks used in the body, other parts are not punctuated ( unless line ends in an abbreviation which requires a period)
Mixed:
appropriate punctuation marks used in body and following additional punctuation marks are used:
a colon used after salutation
a comma used after complimentary closing
other parts are not punctuated ( unless line ends in a abbreviation which requires a period)
Closed:
same as mixed except:
a period used after date
a comma used at end of each line in the inside address, except for last one which ends in a period.
in identification lines a comma used after authors name and period after his/her position. If only authors name is used, a period follows the name.
What are the 5 types of positive letters?
Thank-you
Acceptance
Confirmation
Congratulation
Recommendation
What does each paragraph consist of in a Thank-you letter?
First: state why your thanking person
Second: should explain reason for letter
Final: close with a positive friendly statement
What does each paragraph consist of in a Acceptance letter?
First: confirm that you are accepting invitation and restates exactly what your accepting.
Second/succeeding: should include any additional information you feel important for reader to know or certain questions you may have aobut invitation.
Last: close on friendly note.
What does each paragraph consist of in Congratulation letter?
First: why you are congratulating reader. usually includes recognition of effort to achieve something.
Second: express best wishes for continued sucess or happyness.
What does each paragraph consist of in letter of Recommendation?
First: state whom your recommending if applicable what position recommending person for.
Second: state position and or duties will hold, positive comments about his/her performance
Third: close letter with friendly statement.If you want them to contact company include " Please contact me at"
Types of Negative Letters:
Complaint letters
Collection letters
Refusal letters
Complaint letters usually written after:
you have verbally complained to someone and have not received a response, or no action has been taken. Basically document of proof of complaint.
What does each paragraph consist of in Complaint letter?
First: begins with neutral statement. Example " Always received good service in the past"
Second: contains supporting infor for complaint and offers solutions you'd find acceptable. State facts without embellishing them to react angrly. Example " avoid accussing reader of incompetance/negligence.
Last: close letter with positive statement, remind reader your trying to be fair and reasonable and expect solution to problem.
There are 2 types of Complaint letters they are:
Positive Response
Negative Response
What does each paragraph consist of in Positive Response letter?
First: describe original complaint, state what you've done to correct situation ep full refund.
Second: provide explanation how mistake occurred and an apology if necessary.
Last: closes letter with expectation you will have great business relationship in the future.
What does each paragraph consist of in Negative Response letter?
First: contain neutral statements describing original complaint and lead up to refusal of request.
Second: explains why request is refused, may also offer alternative solution or suggestion to help reader accept refusal.
Last: close letter with positive statement. Ep. refusing damaged, might include a catolog so reader can purchase alternative item.
There are 3 types of Collection letters they are:
First
Second
Third
First collection:
formatl reminder notice usually includes offer to arrange alternative payment plan.
Second collection letter:
More demanding letter than the first.
Third collection:
demands immediate payment or debit will be transferred to someone for collection.
What does each paragraph consist of in Collection letters?
First: identifies amount of debt, and references to debt (eg account numbers)
Second: Always states when you expect to receive full payment--usually 2weeks from date of letter.
Last: varies depending on which collection letter you are writing.
What does each paragraph consist of in Refusal letter?
First: thanks reader and restates original request.
Second: explains why request cannot be fullfilled.
Last: closes letter with friendly statement.
The 2 most common refusal letters are:
Credit Cancellation
Credit Refusal
Credit Cancellation:
Usually written after attempt to collect overdue account and are going to write off as a bad debt or assign to someone else for collection.
Credit Refusal:
Written after you've evaluated credit application and don't wish to extend credit to applicant.
Types of Neutral Letters:
Cover Letters
Order Letters
Condolence/ Sympathy letters
Apology letters
What is a Neutral letter?
One where anticipate reader will not react favorably or negatively, to contents of letter. Generally used to convey routine information.
What does each paragraph consist of in Acknowledgement letter?
First: restates request so theres no confusion about request. Main purpose is stated in this paragraph, may also thank person for request.
Second: explains reasons for deferral of request. May also explain what you'll do about request in the future.
Last: Closes with friendly statement
What does each paragraph consist of in Cover letter?
First: describes which postion applying for, how you heard/read about positon, and can include why your interested in position.
Second & Suceeding: describe qualifications you have to make you ideal candidate for job,should include statement about each qualification employer asks for in advertisement.
Last: closes with friendly statement
What does each paragraph consist of in Order letters?
First: states placing an order and gives address to which it should be sent.
Second: usually table which contains 4 columns A)Quantity B) Description C)Unit Price D)Total and sometimes Grand Total.
Last: includes any billing/shipping instructions necessary and end with friendly statement.
What does each paragraph consist of in Reminder letters?
First: restates original request that your reminding reader about and states why your writing.
Second: usually adds supporting information or explanations about why your writing and may sugest some alternative action to resolve situation.
Last: should be with request for action and includes friendly statement.
What does each paragraph consist of in Condolence/Sympathy?
First: expresses regret about loss and includes general statement about how loss will be felt.
Last: offers help to reader if he/she needs, may also express hope for future.
What does each paragraph consist of in Apology letters?
First: states situation your apologizing for or states request your about to deny.
Second: includes reason for apology or why your not fullfilling request.
Last: usually closes with " Please accept my apologies" and includes friendly statement.
What does each paragraph consist of in Inquiry letters?
First: state main objective of letter, which is what your trying to find out. Can also include reference to where you heard about product/service or why your writing.
Second: contain details of inquiry. If making several inquiries put them in seperate paragraphs.
Final: include if necessary, request for specific action and close with positive friendly satement.
There are 5 basic steps to planning and organizing Memos they are:
1. Define purpose
2. Analyze audience
3. List ideas
4. Collect facts
5. Assess impact of memo.
The order of these steps is important and should logically develop your content or arguement so you achieve your purpose.
Following things must be considered to ensure form is functional or easy to use:
All fields must be present
Each field is wide enough and high enough for user to enter data
Each label clearly states what is required in the field beside it
Each label is large enough that people with poor vision can make it out.
There are 3 basic punctuation styles they are:
Open
Mixed
Closed
Open;
appropriate punctuation marks used in body, other parts aren't punctuated.
Mixed;
appropriate punctuation marks used in body and following additional punctuation marks used:
colon after salutation
comma after complimentary closing
other parts not punctuated
Closed;
same as mixed except:
period after date
comma at end of each line in the inside address, except for last one which ends in period.
in identification lines comma after authors name and period after his or her position. If only authors name is used a period follows the name.
Alternative Letter Styles:
Simplified
Official
Indented
Hanging Indent
Simplified:
Always includes subject line
2 blank lines above and below subject line.
Official:
inside address moved from top to bottom of letter, all notations typed incside address, which has been moved to bottom of letter.
Indented:
inside address is indented 1/2in from line above it, indentification line indented one tab 1/2 underneath complimentary closing.
Hanging indent;
Any letter and punctuation style combination may be used for this type. The only difference is each paragraph in body is formatted with hanging indent.
Planning and Organizing Letter/ Memo
1. Why am I writing this letter
2. Who will the reader be and how will he/she react to letter.
3. What supporting or background information is required?
4. What action do I want to request?
Organizing a letter:
First paragraph: presents most important information or aim of letter
Second: usually provides reasons or details required to support information in first paragraph.
Last: asks for appropriate action and closes letter with positive friendly statement.
Appropriate Salutations and Complimentary Closings for Formal letters:
Ladies and Gentleman
Yours truly,
Appropriate Salutations and Complimentary Closings for Person whose position you know, but whose name you don't know:
Dear Executive Director:
Yours truly,
Appropriate Salutations and Complimentary Closings for Informal letter person you know but on a buisness basis only;
Dear Mr. Dewy:
Sincerly,
Appropriate Salutations and Complimentary Closings for a friend but on a business basis:
Dear Mathew
Yours sincerly,