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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organizations
organizational behavior
groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose
when an organization extends its activities to other parts of the world, actively participates in other markets and competes against organizations located in other countries
the minimization of conflict between work and non-work demands
work/life balance
an employment relationship in which people are expected to continually develop their skills to remain employed
any job in which the individual does not have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment, or one in which the minimum hours of work can very in a non-systematic way
contingent work
employees use information technology to perform their jobs away from the traditional physical workplace
virtual work
teams whose members operate across space, time and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks
virtual teams
stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations
the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad
an organization's moral obligation toward its stakeholders
corporate social responsibility (CSR)
shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments, and any other group with a vested interest in the organization
a set of principles and procedures that help researchers to systematically understand previously unexplained events and conditions
scientific method
a process adopted in most qualitative research of developing knowledge through the constant interplay of data collection, analysis, and theory development
grounded theory
the idea that a particular action may have different consequences in different situations
contingency approach
organizations that take their sustenance from the environment and, in turn, affect that environment through their output
open systems
any structured activity that improves an organization's capacity to acquire, share and use knowledge in ways that improve its survival and success
knowledge management
the sum of an organization's human capital, structural capital and relationship capital
intellectual capital
the ability to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends
absorptive capacity
informal groups bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest
communities of practice
the storage and preservation of intellectual capital
organizational memory
how much employees identify with and are emotionally committed to their work, are cognitively focused on that work, and possess the ability and resources to do so
employee engagement
the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior
both the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
the abilities, values, personality traits, and other characteristics of people that lead to superior performance
goal-directed activities that are under that individual's control
task performance
behaviors that extend beyond the employee's normal job duties
organizational citizenship
potentially harmful voluntary behaviors enacted on an organization's property or employees
Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs)
a person's evaluation of his or her job and work context
job satisfaction
stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations
values that we say we use and think we use
espoused values
values we rely on to guide or decisions and actions
enacted values
a situation wherein two or more entities have similar value systems
values congruence
the extent to which a person values independence and personal uniqueness
he extent to which people value duty to groups to which they belong, and to group harmony
the extent to which people accept unequal distribution of power in a society
power distance
the degree to which people tolerate ambiguity or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
uncertainty avoidance
a competitive versus cooperative view of relations with people
achievement-nurturing orientation
the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad
he moral principle stating that decision makers should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people when choosing among alternatives
the moral principle stating that every person is entitled to legal and human rights
individual rights principle
the moral principle stating that people who are similar should be rewarded similarly, and those dissimilar should be rewarded differently
distributive justice principle
the degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles
moral intensity
a personal characteristic that enables people to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue
ethical sensitivity
the five abstract dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and extroversion (CANOE)
"big five" personality dimensions
a “Big Five” personality dimension that characterizes people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable and assertive
a “Big Five” personality dimension that characterizes people who are territorial and solitary
a personality test that measures each of the traits in Jung's model
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
a personality trait referring to the extent to which people believe events are within their control
locus of control
a personality trait referring to an individual's level of sensitivity and ability to adapt to situational cues
the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information in order to make sense of the world around us
he process of filtering information received by our senses
selective attention
the most unconscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory
categorical thinking
the broad world-views or “theories-in-use” that people rely on to guide their perceptions and behaviors
mental models
a theory stating that much learning occurs by observing others and then modeling the behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes and avoiding the behaviors that lead to punishing consequences
social identity theory
he process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category
the unfocused negative emotions and attitudes toward people belonging to a particular stereotyped group
the theory that as individuals interact with one another they rely less on stereotypes about each other
contact hypothesis
the perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused largely by internal or by external factors
attribution process
the tendency to attribute the behavior of other people more to internal than to external factors
fundamental error attribution
a perceptual error whereby people tend to attribute their favorable outcomes to internal factors and their failures to external factors
self-serving bias
occurs when our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations
self-fulfilling prophecy
a perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people based on the first information we receive about them
primacy effect
a perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates one's perception of others
recency effect
a perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colors the perception of other characteristics of that person
halo effect
a perceptual error in which an individual believes that other people have the same beliefs and behaviors that he/she does
projection bias
a person's ability to understand and be sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others
the model of personal and interpersonal understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase the open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas of oneself
Johari Window
a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment
knowledge embedded in our actions and ways of thinking, and transmitted only through observation and experience
tacit knowledge
a theory that explains learning in terms of the antecedents and consequences of behavior
behavior modification
occurs when the introduction of consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior
positive reinforcement
occurs when a consequence decreases the frequency or future probability of a behavior
occurs when the removal or avoidance of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior
negative reinforcement
occurs when the target behavior decreases because no consequence follows it
a theory stating that much learning occurs by observing others and then modeling the behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes and avoiding the behaviors that lead to punishing consequences
social learning theory
occurs whenever an employee has control over a reinforcer but delays it until completing a self-set goal
the extent to which an organization or individual supports knowledge management, particularly opportunities to acquire knowledge through experience and experimentation
learning orientation
a variety of experiential learning activities in which employees are involved in a “real, complex and stressful problem,” usually in terms, with immediate relevance to the company
action learning
psychological and physiological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness
he cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward an object
occurs when people perceive an inconsistency between their beliefs, feelings and behavior
cognitive dissonance
the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions
emotional labor
the conflict between required and true emotions
emotional dissonance
he ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion and thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others
emotional intelligence (EI)
a person's attitude regarding his or her job and work content
job satisfaction
the four ways, as indicated in the name, employees respond to job dissatisfaction
exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model
a bond felt by an employee that motivates him or her to stay only because leaving would be costly
continuance commitment
the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization
organizational (affective) commitment
a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of another person
the individual's beliefs about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between that person and another party
psychological contact
the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior
deficiencies that energize or trigger behaviors to satisfy those needs
instinctive or innate tendencies to seek certain goals or maintain internal stability
a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified (physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization)
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory
the need for self-fulfillment in reaching one's potential
a motivation theory of three needs arranged in a hierarchy, in which the people progress to the next higher need when a lower one is fulfilled, and regress to a lower need if unable to fulfill a higher one
ERG theory
a motivation theory based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn and defend that incorporates both emotions and rationality
four-drive theory
a learned need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own efforts, like being successful in competitive situations, and desire unambiguous feedback regarding their success
need for achievement (nAch)
a learned need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation
need for affiliation (nAff)
a learned need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power)
need for power (nPow)
a motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes
expectancy theory
the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome
the process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives
goal setting
any information that people receive about the consequences of their behavior
performance feedback received fro a full circle of people around an employee
multi-source (360-degree) feedback
a helping relationship using behavioral methods to assist clients in identifying and achieving goals for their professional performance and personal satisfaction
executive coaching
the perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others
distributive justice
the fairness of the procedures used to decide the distributions of resources
procedural justice
theory that explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources
equity theory
a person's outcome/input preferences and reactions to various outcome/input ratios
equity sensitivity
systematically evaluating the worth of jobs withing an organization by measuring their required skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions – results create a hierarchy of job worth
job evaulation
a reward system that rewards team members for reducing costs and increasing labor efficiency in their work process
gainsharing plan
a reward system that pays bonuses to employees based on the previous year's level of corporate profits
profit-sharing plans
a reward system that encourages employees to buy shares of the company
employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs)
a reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price
stock options
a reward system that pays bonuses to executives for improved measurements on a composite of financial, customer, internal process, and employee factors
balanced scorecard
the process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs
job design
the result of division of labor in which each job includes a subset of the tasks required to complete the product or service
job specialization
involves systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency
scientific management
Herzberg's theory stating that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower-level needs
motivator-hygiene theory
a job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties
job characteristics model
the extent to which employees must use different skills and talents to perform tasks within their job
skill variety
the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or an identifiable piece of work
task identity
the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the organization and/or larger society
task significance
the degree to which a job gives employees the freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule their work and determine the procedures used in completing it
the practice of moving employees form one job to another
job rotation
increasing the number of tasks employees perform within their job
job enlargment
employees are given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work
job enrichment
a psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization
the process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task
talking to ourselves about our own thoughts or actions for the purpose of increasing our self-confidence and navigating through decisions in a future event
mentally practicing a task and visualizing its successful completion
mental imagery
an individual's adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being
a model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome
the causes of stress, including any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the person
epeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, which affect an employee's dignity or integrity and result in a harmful work environment for the employee
psychological harrassment
unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that detrimentally affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for its victims
sexual harrassment
conflict that occurs when people face competing demands
role conflict
uncertainty about job duties, performance expectations, level of authority and other job conditions
role ambiguity
he capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk
a person who is highly involved in work, feels compelled to work, and has a low enjoyment of work
a behavior pattern associated with people having premature heart disease; Type A people tend to be impatient, lose their tempers easily, talk rapidly and interrupt others
type A behavior pattern
the process of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment resulting from prolonged exposure to stress
job burnout
counseling services that help employees overcome personal or organizational stressors and adopt more effective coping mechanisms
employee assistance programs (EAPs)
a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs
decision making
processing limited and imperfect information and satisficing rather than maximizing when choosing among alternatives
bounded rationality
the decision maker's preferred alternative against which all other choices are judged
implicit favourite
selecting a solution that is satisfactory, or “good enough” rather than optimal or “the best”
the ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and select the best course of action without conscious reasoning
a systematic process of thinking about alternative futures, and what the organization should do to anticipate and react to those environments
scenario planning
justifying choices by unconsciously inflating the quality of the selected option and deflating the quality of the discarded options
post-decisional justification
the tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing course of action
escalation of commitment
an effect in which losing a particular amount is more disliked than gaining the same amount
prospect theory
the degree to which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out
employee involvement
the development of original ideas that make a socially recognized contribution
involves reframing a problem in a unique way and generating different approaches to the issue
divergent thinking
groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization
two ore more people with a unifying relationship
the extent to which a team achieves its objectives, achieves the needs and objectives of its members, and sustains itself over time
team effectivness
the degree to which a task requires employees to share common inputs or outcomes, or to interact in the process of executing their work
talk interdependence
eams that include members with common technical expertise, demographics (age, gender), ethnicity, experiences, or values
homogeneous teams
teams that include members with diverse personal characteristics and backgrounds
heterogeneous teams
the informal rules and expectations that groups establish to regulate the behavior of their members
a set of behaviors that people are expected to perform because they hold certain positions in a team and organization
the degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members
team cohesiveness
a situation in which people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in groups than when working alone
social loafing
cross-functional work groups organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks
self-directed work teams (SDWTs)
a theory stating that effective work sites have joint optimization of their social and technological systems, and that teams should have sufficient autonomy to control key variances in the work process
sociotechnical systems theory (STS theory)
the balance that is struck between social and technical systems to maximize an operation's effectiveness
joint optimization
teams whose members operate across space, time and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks
virtual teams
a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of another person
a time constraint in team decision making due to the procedural requirement that only one person may speak at a time
production blocking
when individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them
evaluation apprehension
the tendency of highly cohesive groups to value consensus at the price of decision quality
the tendency of teams to make more extreme decisions than individuals working alone
group polarization
any situation where people debate their different opinions about an issue in a way that keeps the conflict focused on the task rather than on people
constructive conflict
a freewheeling, face-to-face meeting where team members generate as many ideas as possible, piggyback on the ideas of others, and avoid evaluating anyone's ideas during the idea-generation stage
using special computer software, participants share ideas while minimizing the team dynamics problems inherent in traditional brainstorming sessions
electronic brainstorming
a structured team decision-making process of systematically pooling the collective knowledge of experts on a particular subject to make decisions, predict the future, or identify opposing views
Delphi model
a structured team decision-making process whereby team members independently write down ideas, describe and clarify them to the group, and then independently rank or vote on them
nominal group techinque
any formal activity intended to improve the development and functioning of a team
team building
a process of conversation among team members in which they learn about each other's mental models and assumptions, and eventually form a common model for thinking within the team