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39 Cards in this Set

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Performance = ?

(equation, define the variables too)
ability x motivation (effort)

where:
ability = aptitude x training x resources

motivation = desire x commitment
what happens if manager incorrectly assumes poor performance is related to ability?
motivation will decrease
What are three signals of ability deterioration in managers?
1) taking refuge in a specialty
2) focusing on past performance
3) exaggerating aspects of the leadership role.
What are the 5 tools to overcome poor performance due to lack of ability? (5 R's)
1) resupply: do you have what you need?
2) retrain
3) refit: reconstruct current jobs to be more meaningful/rewarding
4) reassign: switch them to a job of less responsibility or less req'd training
5) release: fire
what is a common pitfall of managers when it comes to handling hopelessly low ability in workers?
too nice to fire them
define "indulging" management style
too nice, emphasis on worker happiness/satisfaction rather than performance
define "imposing" management style
having little concern for how employees feel about their jobs
define "ignoring" management style
ignoring both satisfaction and performance of worker
define "integrating" management style
emphasizing performance and satisfaction equally
What are the effective motivation program steps?
motivation => performance => outcomes => satisfaction
What are the elements of the integrative motivation program: motivation => performance
1. establish moderately difficult goals that are understood and accepted
ask: do subordinates understand and accept my performance expectations?
2. remove personal and organizational obstacles to performance
ask: do subordinates feel it is possible to achieve this goal or expectation?
What are the elements of the integrative motivation program: performance => outcomes
use rewards and discipline appropriately to extinguish unacceptable behavior and encourage exceptional
performance
ask: do subordinates feel that being a high performer is more rewarding than being a low or average performer
What are the elements of the integrative motivation program: outcomes => satisfaction
4. provide salient internal and external incentives
ask: do subordinates feel the rewards used to encourage high performance are worth the effort?
5. distribute rewards equitably
ask: do subordinates feel that work-related benefits are being distributed fairly?
6. provide timely rewards and specific, accurate, and honest feedback on performance
ask: do subordinates know where they stand in terms of current performance and long-term opportunities?
why is goal setting important for motivation?
goal setting
-mobilizes effort
-directs attention
- encourages persistence and strategy development
what characteristics makes goals effective? (7)
1) understood
2) accepted
3) self-chosen
4) specific (measurable, unambiguous, and emphasize how to behave
5) consistent (possible)
6) appropriately challenging (achievement motivation)
7) feedback system (progress report and goal readjustment)
obstacle removal: what determines the leader's actual involvement in subordinate tasks?
1) task characteristics (how much help is needed?)
2) subordinate's expectations (how much help do they WANT?)
3) organizational structure (how much help is already available?)
what factors influence management involvement? 6
1) task structure
2) task mastery
3) subordinate's desire for autonomy
4) subordinate's ability
5) strength of group norms
6) effectiveness of organization's controls and rewards
how should high performance be encouraged?
1) positively reinforced using highly desirable rewards
2) awards given publicly, infrequently, in a credible process, acknowledge past winners, and make award meaningful to organizatio
what is a big pitfall in rewards/punishment styles of managers?
rewarding A while hoping for B: managers punish lack of unity or clear, consistent priorities but hope for creativity
what is the proper way to bring out subordinate initiative?
let them figure it out by talking to them and asking open-ended questions. don't take control of them.
When should discipline be used over rewards?
When the behavior is below what is expected, discipline. if behavior is AS expected though not excellent, encourage better performance through reward.
What are the three methods for improving behaviors and when should they be used?
1) reprimand: below standards
2) redirect: acceptable behavior
3) reinforce (reward): above standards
what are the three steps to reprimanding?
1) identify the specific inapproriate behavior. give examples. say the action must stop
2) point out impact of problem on others, the unit's mission, etc.
3) ask questions about causes and explore remedies
what are the three steps to 'redirecting'?
4) describe the behaviors or standards you expect.
5) ask if the individual will comply
6) be appropriately supportive. for example, praise other aspects of their work, identify benefits of compliance.
what are the three steps to 'reinforcing'
7. identify rewards that are salient to the individual
8. link the attainment of desirable outcomes with incremental, continuous improvement
9. reward (including using praise) all improvements in performance in a timely and honest manner
define extrinsic outcomes
rewards/punishments that are controlled by outside person

eg// pay, promotions, praise
define intrinsic outcomes
rewards/punishments controlled by actual person

eg// feelings of accomplishment, self-esteem, and the development of new skills
define work redesign
work redesign matches job characteristics to workers' skills/interests to boost motivation
what job dimensions are key to designing highly motivating jobs (5)
1) skill variety: being able to use more than one skill (eg/ combine tasks)
2) task identity: seeing task from beg. to end. (form work units)
3) task significance: have an impact on organization/people (work units)
4) autonomy: eg// increase authority and establish client relationships (talk to who's using their creations)
5. feedback: open feedback channels with management + customers
what factors determine the success rate of rewards?
extent to which recipient:
1) actually values the specific outcomes
2) believes the reward allocation was fair
3) receives reward in a timely manner
What is the need theory of Maslow in order of most urgent needs to least?
physiological => safety => belongingness => esteem => self-actualization
what is alderfer's order of needs?
existence => relatedness => growth
define the need for achievement and it's characteristics in a person
behavior toward competition with a standard of excellence
1) tendency to set moderately difficult goals
2) a strong desire to assume personal responsibility for work activities
3) single -minded focus on accomplishing a task
4) strong desire for detailed feedback on task performance
define the need for affiliation and it's characteristics in a person
attractions to other individuals in order to feel reassured and acceptable.

1) sincere interest in the feelings of others
2) tendency to conform to the expectations of others, especially those whose affiliation they value
3) strong desire for reassurance and approval from others
define the need for power and two types of power seekers and characteristics of the better style
represents desire to influence others and to control one's environment

type 1: personal power: tend to seek power and influence just because they like control
type 2: institutional power: desire influence so that goals of group/organization can be advanced

characteristics
1 _ organization minded, feeling personally responsible for advancing purpose of org.
2) enjoy work and accomplishing tasks in an orderly fashion
3) willing to sacrifice own self-interests for good of org.
4) strong sense of justince and equity
5) seek expert advice and not defensive when ideas are criticized
define equity and the benefits of creating it
refers to workers' perceptions of the fairness of rewards

correcting inequity => increase in commitment and loyalty
what 2 factors result in successful reinforcement of a behavior
1) length of time between occurrence of desirable behavior and reward (sooner the better)
2) specificity of the explanation for the reward (they need to know what behavior got them the reward)
what's are the advantageous between continuous and intermittent reinforcement basis?
consistent = fast results but in danger if stopped

intermittent: gambler mentality (reward could happen anytime, so i'll just keep trying)
why is feedback crucial for reinforcement?
feedback allows people to reinfornce/extinguish specific behaviors (I like how you are willing to do whatever it takes to meet a deadline.)