Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/94

Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
management
The process of achieving organization objectives through people and other resources.
technical skills
The manager's ability to understand and use techniques, knowledge, and tools and quimpment of a specific discipline or department.
human skills
Interpersonal skills that enable a manager to work effectively with and through people.
conceptual skills
Determine a manager's ability to see the organization as a unifed whole and to understand how each part of the overall organization interacts with other parts.
planning
The process of anticipating future events and conditions and determining courses of action for achieving organizational objectives.
organizing
The means by whihc managers blend human and material resources through a formal structure of tasks and authoirty.
directing
Guiding and motivating employees to accomplish organizational objectives.
controlling
The function of evaluating an organization's performance to determine whether it is accomplishing its objectives.
vision
Perception of marketplace needs and methods an organization can use to satisfy them.
strategic planning
The process of determining the primary obejctives of an orgnaziation and then adopting the courses of action and allocating resources to achieve those objectives.
tactical planning
Plans designed to implement the acitivites specified by strategic plans.
operational planning
Plans that create the detailed standards that guide implementation of tactical plans
contingency planning
Plans that allow a firmt o resume operations as quickly and as quickly and as smoothly as possible after a crisis while openly communicating with the public about what happened.
mission statement
Written explanation of an organization's business intentions and aims.
SWOT analysis
An organized approach to assessing a company's internal strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats.
objectives
Guideposts by which managers define the organiztion's desired performance in such areas as profitability, customer service, growth, and empoyee satisfaction.
competitive differentiation
The unique combination of a company's abilities and approaches taht place it ahead of competitors.
decision making
the process of recognizing a problem or opportunity, evaluating alternative solutions, selecting and implementing an alternative, and assessing the results.
programmed decision
Simple, common and frequently occuring problem for which a solution has already been determined.
nonprogrammed decision
A complex and unique problem or opportunity with important consequences for the organization.
leadership
The ability to direct or inspire people to attain organizational goals.
autocratic leadership
A management approach whereby leaders make decisions on their own without consulting employees.
democratic leadership
A management approach whereby leaders delegate assignments, ask employees for suggestions, and encourage thier participation.
empowerment
A practice in which managers lead employees by sharing power, responsibility, and decision making with them.
free-rein leadership
A management approach whereby leaders believe in minimal supervision and leave most decisons to their subordinates
corporate culture
An organization's system of values, principles, and belief.
organization
A structuredgrouping of people working together to achieve common goals.
organization chart
A visual representation of a firm's structure taht illustrates job positions and functions.
departmentalization
the Process of dividing work activites into units within the organization.
delegation
The act of assigning work activites to subordinates.
span of management
The number of subordinates a manager can supervise effectively.
centralization
When decision making is based at the top of the management hierarchy
decentralization
When decision making is based at the lower levels of the organization.
line organziation
An organizational structure that establishes a direct flow of auhtoirty from the chief executive to subordinates.
chain of command
A set of relationships that indicates who directs which activities and who reports to whom.
line-and-staff organization
An organizational structure that combines the direct flow of authority of a line organization with staff departments that serve, advise, and support the line departments.
line manager
An executive involved with the functions of production, financing, or marketing.
staff manager
An executive who provides information, advice, or techincial assistance to aid line managers; does not have the atuhority to give orders, outside his/her own department or to compel line managers to take action.
committee organization
An organizational structure that places authority and responsibilty jointly in the hands of a group of individuals rather than a single manager.
matrix structure
A project management structure that links employees from different parts of the organization to work together on specific projects.
human resource management
The function of attracting, developing, and retiaing enough qualified employees to perform the activities necessary to accomplish organizational objectives.
professional employment services (PEOs)
A company that helps firms with a wide range of human resource services.
employment at will
Practice that allows the employemnt relationship to begin or end at any time at teh decision of either the employee or the employer for any legal reason.
on-the-job training
Training method that teaches an employee to complete new tasks by peforming them under teh guidance of an experienced employee.
managemnet development program
Provides traiining designed to improve the skills and broaden the knowlege of current and potential executives.
performance appraisal
An evaluation of an employee'sjob performance by comparing actual results with desired outcomes.
360-degree performance review
Employee performance review that gathers feedback from co-workers, supervisors, managers, and sometimes customers.
wages
Compensation based on an hourly pay rate or the amount of outpout produced.
salary
Compensation calculated on a periodic basis, such as weekly or monthly.
living wage
Legally mandated wage that allows a worker to support a family of four without any form of public assistance.
employee benefits
Rewards such as retirement plans, health insurance, vacations, and tutitipon reimbursement provided for employees either entirely or in part at the company's expense.
401(k) plans
Retirement savings plan for which employees can make pretax contributions' sometimes, employers make additional contributions to the plan.
flexible benefit plan
Benefit system that offers employees a range of options from which they may choose the types of benefits they recieve.
flexible work plan
Employment that allows personnel to adjust their working hours and places of work to accommodate their personal lives.
flextime
scheduling system that allows employees to set their own work hours wihtin constraints specified by the firm.
downsizing
Process of reducing the number of employees within a firm by elminating jobs.
outsourcing
Pracitce of contracing out work previously performed by company employees.
morale
Mental attitude of employees toward their employer and jobs.
contingent worker
Employee who works part time, temporairly, or for the period of time specified in a contract.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
A theory of motivation, which states that people have five levels of needs that they seek to satisfy: physicological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization.
job enlargement
Job design that explands anemployee's responsibilities by increasing the number and variety of tasks assigned to the worker
job enrichment
Change in job duties to increase employees' authority in planning their work, deciding how it should be done, and learning new skills.
Theory X
Assumption that employees dislike work and will try to avoid it.
Theory Y
Assumptions that employees enjoy work and seek social, esteem, and self-actualization flufillment.
Theory Z
Assumption that employee involvement is key to productivity and quality of work life.
labor union
A group of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in teh areas of wages, hours, and working conditions.
collective bargaining
Process of negotiation between managemnet and union representatives for the prupose of arriving at mutually acceptable wages and working conditions for employees.
grievance
Formal complaint filed by an employee or a union that managemnet is violating some provision of a union contract.
empowerment
Giving employees authority and responsibility to make decisions about thier work without traditional managerial approval and control.
employee stock owndership plans (ESOPs)
Plan that benefits employees by giving them ownership stakes in teh companies for which they work.
teamwork
Cooperative effort by a group of workers acting together for a common cause.
team
Group of employees who are committed to a common purpose, approach, and set of performance goals.
work team
Relatively permanent group of employees with complementary skills who perform the day-to-day work of roganizations.
problem-solving team
Temporary combination of wokres who gather to solve a specific problem and then disband.
team cohesiveness
Extent to which team members feel attracted to the team and motivated to remain part of it.
team norm
Informal standard of conduct shared by team members that guides their behavior.
conflict
Antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another.
communication
Meaningful exchange of information through messages.
listening
Skill of receiving a message and interpreting its intended meaning by grasping the facts and feelings it conveys.
grapevine
Inernal information channel that transmits information from unofficial sources.
internal communication
System that sends messages through channels within an organization.
external communication
meaningful exchange of information through messages transmitted between and organization and its major audiences.
production
Application of resources such as poeple and machinery to convert materials into finished goods and services.
production and operations management
Managing people and machinery in converting materials and resources into finished goods and services.
assembly line
Manufacturing technique that carries the product on a conveyor system past several workstations where workersperform specialized tasks.
robot
Reprogrammable machine capable of performing numberous tasks that require manipulations of materials and tools.
computer-aided design (CAD)
System for interactions between a designer and a computer to design a product, facility, or part that meets predetermined specifications.
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Electronic tools to analyze CAD output and determine necessary steps to implement the design followed by electronic transmission of instructions to gudie the activites of production equipment.
just-in-time (JIT) system
Management philosophy aimed at improving profits and return on investment by minimizing costs and eliminating waste through cutting inventory on hand.
materials requirement planning (MRP)
Computer-based production planning system by which a firm can ensure that it has needed parts and materiasl available at the right time and place int he correct amounts.
scheduling
Development of timetables that specify how long each operation in the prodcution process takes and when workers should perform it.
benchmarking
Identifying how leaders in certain fields perform and continually comparing and measuring performance against these otustandign performers.
quality control
Measuring goods and services against established qulaity standards.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
International organization whose mission is to promoote the development of standardized products to facilitate trade and cooperation across national borders.