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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Code of Conduct: What are the five basic relationships? (Confucianism)
Ruler- Subject
Brother- Brother
Parent- Child
Husband- Wife
Friend- Friend
"Five Classics" (Confucianism)
-compilation of cultural literary achievements
-role of Confucius as editor
-goal in perservation of chinese culture
-basis of civil service examinations
"Analects" (Confucianism)
-book of Confucian sayings ("Confucius says...")
-Writings of followers and students of Confucius
-Guide of behavious "Decorum"
Mencius (Confucianism)
-later Confucian philosopher
-writings on Confucian impact on government
Han Fei Zi (Legalism)
Legalist Philosopher- Writer
Qin Dynasty (Legalism)
-period of end of internal warfare
-unification under rule of "Shih Huang Di"
Han Dynasty (Legalism)
-Period of "Pax Sinica" (chinese peace)
Four Noble Truths (Buddhism)
1. all life has suffering
2. cause of suffering is desire
3. only way to escape suffering is to end desire
4. way to end desire is to follow "noble eightfold path"
--result== nirvana
Noble Eightfold Path (Buddhism)
-way to end desire. steps:
-right belief -right ambition
-right thoughts -right living
-right speech -right pleasure
-right ambition -right conduct
Chan Buddhism
-combo of Taoism and Buddhism beliefs
-chinese buddhism
Zen Buddhism
-japanese version of chan/chinese buddhism
Hinayana Buddhism
-focus on origional teachings of buddha
-emphasis on personal pursuit of Nirvana
Mahayana Buddhism
-belief in continual reincarnation of buddha and other holy men-- "bodhisattuas"
Stoicism
-ethical based concept of equality
Neo-Platonism
-concept of eternal nature of soul
Sadducees (Christianity)
-wealthy establishment class
Pharisees (Christianity)
-scholarly middle class
-study of torah
Essenes (Christianity)
-religious extremists
-life of prayer and fasting
-belief in immediate arrival of messiah
Zealots (Christianity)
-political extremists
-goal of freedom from Roman Rule
John the Baptist (Christianity)
-religious figure (prophet?)
-establishment of practice of baptism
-preparation for coming of Messiah
Jesus of Nazerith (Christianity)
-born to common family: father joseph, mother mary
-entrance to temple
-baptized by john
-period of preaching and teaching
-trial and execution *resurrection
Nazarenes (Christianity)
-followers of jesus
Baptism and communion (Christianity)
-1st christian practices
"Gospels" (Christianity)
-1st 4 books of New Testament
-Accounts of teachings of Jesus
-First 3: Matthew, Mark and Luke “Synoptic Gospels”—first sources
-Last: John: written letter
Paul (Christianity)
-Original name Saul
-Conservative Pharisee
-Hatred and opposition to Nazarenes
-Miracle: result in new name Paul & role of leader of new faith
-Subsequent travels to spread faith and establishment new
Communities of followers
-New practice of accepting “gentiles” into faith
-1st use of “Christ” and “Christian”: Greek for Messiah
-Eventual Arrest & Execution (38 AD)
"Epistles" (Christianity)
-additional books of New Testament
-Series of letters written to Christian communities -Topics involving the establishment accepted Doctrine
Edict of Milan (Christianity)
-act of religious tolerance
Priest (christianity)
-in charge of local community of "congregation"
bishop (christianity)
-in charge of several parishes
-seat of power in "cathedral in major city
Archbishop (christianity)
-in charge of several dioceses
-seat in regional cappital city
Pope and Patriarchs (christianity)
4 bishops of major cities of empire origins of christian religon
Petrine Doctrine (christianity)
basis for claim of overall authority by pope as legitimate sucessor to peter
Division of Christendom (christianity)
-Western "Catholic" Church
-Eastern "Orthadox" Church
Bedouins (Islamic)
nomadic desert dwellers
-tribal organization with leader "Shiek"
City Dwellers (Islamic)
Merchant based society
-origin of Merchant caravans from yemen to egypt
Kaaba (Islamic)
Sacred sanctuary of arabs in mecca
-center of arabic pilgrimage
-complex with black stone and 300 states of deites
Allah (Islamic)
chief god of all arabs
Early life of Muhammad (Islamic)
-Born Poor and early orphaned
-Hard Youth as camel driver in Caravan
-Marriage to wealthy widow
-Period of Meditation: Gains vision of Archangel Gabriel
-Revealed as last Prophet
Five Pilars (Islamic)
1. Islamic Creed: There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is his prophet
2. Prayer: Five times daily facing Mecca
3. Almsgiving: acts of charity especially to orphans and widows (Red Crescent)
4. Fasting: No Food during daylight of holy month of Ramadan
5. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime
-Reward of Paradise
Quran (Islamic)
Sacred book of Islam
-114 "suras" from Allah to Muhammad
-Arranged longest to shortest
_written only in Arabic
Sunna (Islamic)
Book of Laws not addressed in Quran
Hadith (Islamic)
Recorded words of Muhammad
Sharia (Islamic)
Rules of Conduct: Code of Behavior
-Restrictions on consumption of Alcohol and certain foods (no pig)
-Protection of rights of women and children
-Prohibition against infancide
-Strong inheritance laws
-Muslim right to Polygomy (4 maximum wives)
-Women right of divorce
Imams, Mullahs and Muezzin (Islamic)
Imams: Leaders of prayer
Mullahs: teachers of Islamic law
Muezzin: caller to prayers
Caliphs (Islamic)
-sucessors to Muhammad
-continued theocradic rule
-first 4 related or advisors to muhammad
Abu Bakr (Islamic)
Father in law to Muhammad
-sucessful enforcement of all Arabs to Islam
Omar (Islamic)
advisor of Muhammad
-establishment of Islamic empire
-conquest of jerusalem, damascus and alexandria
-concept of jihad: willingness to fight for islam
Othman (Islamic)
advisor to muhammad
-unpopular leader: appointment of friends and family to political positions
-rule ended with murder
Ali (Islamic)
-muhammads cousin and son in law
-choice of ali controversial
-short rule ends with assasination
Shiites (Islamic)
-followers of Ali and Ali's son Huryan
-support in only Quran as basis of law
Sunnites (Islamic)
-followers of Othman's relative
-support of any spiritually qualified man for Caliph
-acceptance of both Quran and Sunna as basis of law
al-Khwarizmi (Islamic)
author of major treatise- developed "al-Jabr"
Omar Khayyam (Islamic)
-development of new field of study: combo of geometry and algebra: "analytic geometry"
-author of "Rubiyat"-- stylistic use of quattrains
ibn- Sina (Islamic)
-author of canon of medicine
-basic text of medievil europe
-1st example of treatment of cancer
ibn Khaldum (Islamic)
author of 7 volume "Universial History"
Catacomb (Christianity
ceiling decoration
-themes:
-christ as shepherd
-'orans" figure
-use of old testament themes
Stupas (Buddhism)
focus of prayer
-structures with ashes of buddha
Mosque (Islamic)
place of prayer
-"quibla" wall: wall facing mecca
Minaret (Islamic)
-towerfor call to prayer by "Muezzin"
Arabesque (Islamic)
Complex geometric design