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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Managers:
individuals who achieve goals thru other people
organization
a coordianted social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal/s
planning:
a process that includes defining goals, establishing a strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
Organizing:
determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, who reports them...
Leading
direct and coordinate people: motivate or resolve problems.
Controlling
Must monitor the organization's performance; monitor, compare, and potentially correct.
Technical skills:
the ability to apply specialized knowledge.
Human Skills:
Ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people. Must be able to delegate, communicate and motivate.
Conceptual Skills:
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
ob
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations/ purpose is to improve organization's effectiveness.
Systematic study
look at relationships, attribute cause and effects, base conclusions on scientific evidence.
Intuition:
a gut feeling not supported by research.
Psychology
science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans.
Social Psychology:
blends psychology and sociology; focus: people's influence on one another.; focus: change: how to implement it and reduce barriers to its acceptance.
Sociology:
studies people in relation to environment
contingency variables:
situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
Workforce diversity:
the fact that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sex orientation, and other diverse groups.
Empowering employees:
putting employees in charge of what they do.
classical conditioning:
a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulants that would not ordinarily produce such a response
operant conditioning:
it type of conditioning and which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
Behaviorism:
a theory which argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
social learning theory:
the view that people can learn through observation and direct experience for processes: attentional process, retention process, motor reproduction process, and reinforcement process
shaping behavior:
systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response
continuous reinforcement:
reinforcing a desired behavior each time it is demonstrated
intermittent reinforcement:
reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Fixed interval schedule:
spacing rewards at uniform time intervals.
The variable interval schedule:
distributing rewards at times so that reinforcements are unpredictable
fixed ratio scheduled:
initiating rewards after a fixed or constant number of responses.
Variable ratio schedule:
baring their reward relative to the behavior of the individual
OB Mod:
the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work settings. Typical five-step problem-solving method: identifying critical behaviors, developing baseline data, identifying behavioral consequences, developing and implementing an intervention strategy, and evaluating performance improvement.
ability:
an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in the job
intellectual abilities:
the capacity to do mental activities such as thinking reasoning and problem solving.
multiple intelligences:
intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
physical abilities:
the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina dexterity strength and similar characteristics
biographical characteristics:
personal characteristics such as age gender race and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personal records
learning:
any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
classical conditioning:
a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response
attitudes:
evaluated statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
cognitive component of an attitude:
the opinion segment of an attitude.
Effective component of an attitude:
the emotional segment of an attitude.
Behavioral component of an attitude:
an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.
Cognitive dissonance:
an incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Self perception theory:
attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred
job satisfaction:
a positive feeling about one's job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics
job involvement:
the degree to which a person identifies with a gel, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self worth.
Psychological empowerment:
employees belief in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, and meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work.
Organizational commitment:
the degree to which the employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
Affective commitment:
an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
Continuance commitment:
the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.
Normative commitment:
an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
Perceived organizational support:
the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.