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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
individuals who achieve goals thru other people
a coordianted social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal/s
a process that includes defining goals, establishing a strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, who reports them...
direct and coordinate people: motivate or resolve problems.
Must monitor the organization's performance; monitor, compare, and potentially correct.
Technical skills:
the ability to apply specialized knowledge.
Human Skills:
Ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people. Must be able to delegate, communicate and motivate.
Conceptual Skills:
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations/ purpose is to improve organization's effectiveness.
Systematic study
look at relationships, attribute cause and effects, base conclusions on scientific evidence.
a gut feeling not supported by research.
science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans.
Social Psychology:
blends psychology and sociology; focus: people's influence on one another.; focus: change: how to implement it and reduce barriers to its acceptance.
studies people in relation to environment
contingency variables:
situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
Workforce diversity:
the fact that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sex orientation, and other diverse groups.
Empowering employees:
putting employees in charge of what they do.
classical conditioning:
a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulants that would not ordinarily produce such a response
operant conditioning:
it type of conditioning and which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
a theory which argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
social learning theory:
the view that people can learn through observation and direct experience for processes: attentional process, retention process, motor reproduction process, and reinforcement process
shaping behavior:
systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response
continuous reinforcement:
reinforcing a desired behavior each time it is demonstrated
intermittent reinforcement:
reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Fixed interval schedule:
spacing rewards at uniform time intervals.
The variable interval schedule:
distributing rewards at times so that reinforcements are unpredictable
fixed ratio scheduled:
initiating rewards after a fixed or constant number of responses.
Variable ratio schedule:
baring their reward relative to the behavior of the individual
OB Mod:
the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work settings. Typical five-step problem-solving method: identifying critical behaviors, developing baseline data, identifying behavioral consequences, developing and implementing an intervention strategy, and evaluating performance improvement.
an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in the job
intellectual abilities:
the capacity to do mental activities such as thinking reasoning and problem solving.
multiple intelligences:
intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
physical abilities:
the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina dexterity strength and similar characteristics
biographical characteristics:
personal characteristics such as age gender race and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personal records
any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
classical conditioning:
a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response
evaluated statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
cognitive component of an attitude:
the opinion segment of an attitude.
Effective component of an attitude:
the emotional segment of an attitude.
Behavioral component of an attitude:
an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.
Cognitive dissonance:
an incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Self perception theory:
attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred
job satisfaction:
a positive feeling about one's job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics
job involvement:
the degree to which a person identifies with a gel, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self worth.
Psychological empowerment:
employees belief in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, and meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work.
Organizational commitment:
the degree to which the employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
Affective commitment:
an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
Continuance commitment:
the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.
Normative commitment:
an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
Perceived organizational support:
the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.