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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 5 functions of mass communication?
1. survellance
2. interpretation
3. linkage
4. entertainment
5. transmission of values
how do people use the mass media?
1. cognition
2. diversion
3. social utility
4. withdrawal
what is cognition?
the idea of makig us learn something
what is diversion?
a means of stimulation, relaxation, escape, and emotional release
what is social utility?
the idea that the media is used for conversational purposes
what is withdrawal?
the idea that the media puts you into another sort of dimension
what are the 3 communication settings?
interpersonal
machine-assisted
mass communication
what are 5 characteristics of mass communication
1. costs alot of money
2. involves complex organizations
3. has multiple gatekeepers
4. main goal is to make a profit
5. is highly competitive
what are the steps in the communication process?
1. source
2. encoding
3. message
4. channel
5. decoding
6. receiver
7. feedback
8. noise
what are the 3 catergories of noise?
1. semantic
2. mechanical
3. enviromental
what is the difference between the wilbert schramm model and the internet model
wilbert schramm model can either go left or right, while the internet can go in any direction due to hyper texts
what is noise?
anything that interferes with the message
what are examples of semantic noise?
different languages, slang (soda vs. pop)
what are examples of enviromental noise?
shuffling of papers, sirens
what is an example of mechanical noise?
static on a tv
what are the differences between the changes in the old and new tv?
more competitive, media vehicles, profit
what is a media vehicle?
where something is produced to target a certain audience
what are the 3 types of convergences?
device
corporate
operational
what is an example of device convergence?
putting together the camara and the phone
what is an example of corporate convergence?
aol& time warner (multiple large companies)
what is an example of operational convergence?
a small local news station and a small local radio station. they may combine the news section
what is functional analysis and what are its two components?
a means of explaining how something is used....macro and micro analysis
what are the two waysof looking at the media?
functional and critical/cultrural approach
what is critical/cultural approach?
examins the underlying power relationships in media exposure and stresses the meaning and interpretations the audience finds in the media content
what is macro- analysis?
the idea of looking at how the media is used in society
what is micro- analysis?
looking at how the media is used by an individual
micro- analysis is also known as...?
uses and gratifications
what is mass communication?
refers to the process by which a complex organization w/ the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messgaes that are directed at a large heterogenous audience.
what are the traditional features of mass communication?
1. formal organizational structure )decisions made in groups)
2. many gatekeepers (the more complex the organization the more gatekeepers)
3. large operating expenses
4. competition for profits
5. highly competitive
the traditional mass communication is known as waht type of model?
"push" model- the sender pushes info. to receiver
the internet is known as what type of model?
"pull" model... te receiver pulls only the informationthat he/she wants
what is disintermediation?
where access to a product or service is given directly to consumer, thus eliminating middle man (gatekeeper)
what is a paradigm?
a model or pattern that a person uses to analyze something (guides the way we think about the mass communication process)
what is dysfunctions?
harmful/negative conseuences due to the mass- communications & lack of interpersonal communications
what are the 2 chracteristics of social utility and their function?
1. conversational currency- using the media to provide a common ground for social conversation

2. parasocial relationships- the idea that viewers develop a kinship and friendship w/ media characters
what are the 3 forms of diversion and their funtion?
1. stinulation- the idea of seeking relief from boredom

2. relaxation- escaping from the pressures of day- to - day existence. (negative overloads)

3. emotional release- releasing pent up emotion or energy (a.k.a catharsis)
critical/cultural approach is based on what...?
marxism
what is marxism? what is their belief?
a way of looking at who controls everthing that we need to function.... beleive that the rich stay rich and the poor stay poor.
around what year did marxism come out?
1930/ 40's
Frankford school came from what... what was their purpose?
came from marxism....looked at what values to look for in the media
what is text? polysemic? ideology? hegemony?
text- object of analysis

polysemic- the idea that different members of the audience will make different interpretations of the same text

ideology- a specific set of ideas or belief regarding social / political objects (commercials...belief that consumption is good)

hegemony- has to do w/ power relationships & dominance
what led to an oral cultural?
language
info. and knowledge grew slowly around what period.
language
writing required what 2 things?
needed symbols and something to write on (surface)
when it came to symbols...what two symbols could be used in the writing period?
graphic symbols or alphabet
what type of surfaces are mentioned when it comes to writing ?
clay, papyrus, parchment, or modern day paper
who created the printing press and in what year?
johann gutenberg...in 1453
what was a benefit of printing?
helped spread religion...scientist could share research
what technology was the first to use digital technology?
telegraph
what were the first technologies to use electricity?
telephone and telegraph
this was thought of as the annihilator of time and space
telegraph
this changed the perception of time and space....then lead to what concept
telephone....lead to the concept of global village
who is matthew brady?
the first man to take pictures of the war
when did motion pics emerge?
during industrialization
the "brownie concept was created in what year ...by whom?
1890...by george easton
what was the benefit of of the "brownie"
u could create family trees
where did radio come from?
pysisits (pyhics)
radio was really beneficial for what war?
WWI
what is the 3rd largest time consumer?
TV
when did TV really come into play?
during WWII
What is digital technology?
where info. could be stored in little pieces
digital technology created what?...what is it?
digital divide: who has the technology and who doesn't
what was the first american war to be photogaphed?
civil war
what is the digital revolution?
where atoms will give way to bits. (atoms: books, cassettes, etc.....bits: electronic data move @speed of light)
what was the first device to to use the digital system to process information?
computer
radio was the first to do what?
the first to bring live entertainment into the home
what is technological determinism and global village?
techno. determism- the belief that the technology shapes the way we think and drives historical change.

global village- the idea that u can be on one side of the world and still be able to communicate to someone else on the other side of world
what was signicant about the Payne Fund Studies?
it marked the first the public had decided that the medium and motion pics. did something to society and needed examination
what is selective retention?
the brain retains certain info.
what is cognitive dissonance?
minimizing info.....ex) u are a smoker, but u cut down on the amount of info. that show anti- drug commercials. (talking ur self into something)
what is agenda setting and who formed this theory?
where the media sets the agenda. they tell us what to think about....McCombs
who came up with the concept of a medium being hot or cold and what do they mean?
marshall McCluhan....the concept is the cooler the medium the more info. u have to supply. (radio is a cool medium, while tv is a hot medium)
what are the steps in the tuba model?
1.(gatekeepers)source pushes out to sender
2. sender then decodes
3.then interprets
4. then encodes
5. then pushed to recevier
6. (2 step flow) feedback
who is the father of communications? what did he do?
wilbert schramm... created the a model. (sender pushes messageover channel to receiver)