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53 Cards in this Set

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what are the stages in production?
~pre-production
~production
~post- production
what is a treatment? proposal?
-treatment: is a document that takes every scene/ plot and u describe it visually.(u'll see the camera shots/ wat audience sees)


-proposal: how the money will be split... how to take the script to the screen using money
wat are the tracks on a VHS?
-audio 2
-audio 1
-video
-control track
wat is a frame? frame rates? feilds?
-frame:is a still image

-~N. america: NTSC,30fps,525 lines in one frame
~Most of europe &asia: PAL,25 fps, 625 lines
~Eastern Europe & France& Russia: SECAM,25fps, 625 lines

-feilds: odd or even set of lines (every frame has 2 feilds)
wat are the formats and standards for video? fps? resolution?
NTSC- 30fps,525
PAL- 25fps,625
SECAM- 25fps, 625
HDTV-30fps= 60fps,24 fps,1125
what is progressive and interlaced scanning?
-prog: read lines in order (1,2,3,4)
-interlaced: it reads even lines first, then odd lines
what is aspect ratio?
differencebtwn width and height (width:height)...NTSC, PAL,SECAM--->standard TV is 4:3
what is the difference btwn analog and digital?
-analog is how analogist viewed images (can't duplicate exactly)

-digital converts signals into 1's & 0's
what is a time code?
-is a numeric address for every single frame on tape/numeric locater...hrs:min:second:frame(will go to 30 frames in the US)

-is necessary for editing
wat is a CODEC and the 2 types?
(compression decompression) compresses information into bits so that when inserted into player it can read it digitally

-1)DV Cam- is larger, but runs slower & has slightly better image
2)mini DV- smaller hardware, runs quicker
what is the difference btwn prime lens and zoom lens?
~prime:can't change distance (adv.-->less distortion & use more in film shots)

~zoom: can change distances
a place where all the light converge and meet a certain point. That's where the camera records, is called what?
focal length/ plain
wat is the difference btwn telephoto and wide angle shot?
~telephoto: magnified image, long focal length

~wide angle shot: get a wider pic, short focal length
this is a small computer chip that is in the shape of a square at the center of the focal plain that displays a color pattern(red, green, blue)....?
CCD (charged coupled device)
what is the difference btwn a single chip and 3 chip cameras?
single- has all 3 colors w/ in that chip

three- 3 seperate chips w/ in camera. one for red, blue, green
what is feild of view? depth of feild?
~how much of the image/scene is being captured on tape

~the range of distances in front of the lens that is in sharp focus
what is lens aperature? f-stop?
~controls the amount of light that comes in, just like ur eye
~how the aperature is measuered. the smaller the f-stop #, the wider the opening; the larger the f-stop #, the smaller the openin (i.e. on the beach)
the speed at which a lens opens & closes (almost like blinking)and the idea that the CCD refreshes itself so u can see u can get a clearer image is called what?
shutter speed
what is focus distances?
the distances betwn the subject and camera
what is white balance?
human eye can see different btwn colors (white). To get a white for cameras the camera evenly sees red, white, & blue.
what are the different types of camera shots?
~Long/ wide shot: used to establish a location, the largest shot u can get

~Medium shot: knee of waist up

~close up: entire head

~extreme close up: eyes, cheeks, nose, etc
what are the 6 different camera angels?
~point of view shot: point/ image of thing that person is lookin at. normally over the shoulder

~low angle shot: when camera is low and is lookin up

~high angel shot: when camera is high and lookin down

~
what are the 9 different camera movements?
1. Pan- left to right or vice versa movement
2. Tilt- up/down motion w/ lens
3. Dolly- physically moving camera from right to left
4. Truck- physically move camera from front to back or vice versa
5. Pedestal- physically raise or lower camera
6. Crane- where camera is on a hydrolic arm that goes to extreme heights (up/ down)
7. zoom- going from wide angle to a telephoto
8. look space- distance from eyes to side of the screen
9. head room- distance from top of frame to top of head
the left/ right relationship...like how we did in the talk show host was looking right, guests were looking left is called what?
screen direction
what is the 180 degree rule? 30 degree rule?
-helps maintain screen direction and continuity. cameras should be on one side of the line. only way to break this rule is by camera showing viewer that camera is moving

-has to be a 30 degree distance btwn the cameras
what is the difference btwn linear and non- linear editing?
~lin: tape the footage that u want. then when its time for editing u get another blank tape and que the footage in the order u want it to be placed. problem is if u decide u want to change the order, u have to start over. (a,b,c,d changed to d,c,a,b)

*u can't edit out of order

~non-lin.: its like rearranging a play list. u don't have to re- record. it changes analog into digital by usin random access (u can jus grab "shot B" and move it)
what is the difference between online and offline?
-uses the EDL (edit decision list) in fine cut to edit the original. Most non- linear is online editing

-takes the original footage, makes a copy (low quality),then uses copy to edit that one. (like a practice)
what are the functions of an editor?
1.rhythmn
2.pacing
3.3 act structure (setup/ first 30min)
4.conflict/ 45min 5.resolution/30min
6.continuity (maintining illusion of sequential time,space, &action)
what is coverage?
to shoot something. you have enough shots (footage. coverage) that is needed for editing...gives a variety.
what are rough cuts, fine cuts, and dailies?
-beginning edit
-final edit
-whatever u shot for that particular day
the idea of editing to different plots (like soaps) or illusion that something is going to happen, but its happening in another plot...like in Saw II where it seemed like everything was goin on at that moment....is called what?
cross cutting
what is matching eyeline?
idea of maintaining the eyeline of the 2 pple in the conversation. ex)if the person is taller or shorter, u have to maintain that line
what is a jump cut?
where the illusion of continuity is broken
what is ADR?
Automatic Dialogue Replacement
-idea that actors acted out a scene, but the sound person didn't catch it. so the actor watches the recorded video & records their lines seperately again. (jus the voice)
what are syncs and EDL's?
-perfect alighnment of audio and video together
-edit decision list
what is 3- point lighting?
3lights:
1.key light: primary light, sort of the spot light
2.Fill light: softer & diffused to fill in shadows from key/ spot light
3.Back light: used to seperate the person from the background. is placed diagonally opposite from key light. illuminates person's top of the head, ears,etc.

*key should be twice intensity to fill light
twighlight....just before sunset and before sunrise, is flattering for human skin, and and is still sspecular light (enough to create shadows) is called what?
golden hour
what temperature does the colors blue, red, and white give off? wat are the units for each?
-deep shade: 9000K
-candlelight: 2000K
-daylight: 5600K
what is the difference btwn tungsten, HMIs, and Flourescents?
-is a type of video light (warm)
-Halogen metal Iodide: profes. light & daylight balance. gives off more lght than tungsteen & doesn't burn out as quickly

-has phospherence...doesn't burn out as quickly. the diff. lights will flicker & uses phosphors dat give out the light
what are the three main types of lights found in a studio? describe them
~spot light: hard light, specular, and intense

~flat light: less intense, less shadows

~portable
name the three types of flat lights? name the two types of spot lights?
-1.scoops
2.box
3.broad

-1.fresnels: allows u to change beam of light and get hard shadows
2.ellipsoidal: kinda changes shape but also creates a spotlight
what are 7 accessories to lights?
1. Barn doors: lil flaps dat allows u to adjust where light falls

2. Scrims: used to reduce intrnsity of light

3. Lighting gels: colored paper that helps adjust color. (ex. put blue in front of tungsteen to get a pure daylight base & orange in daylight base to get tungsteen base)

4. Diffusion: gives u a softer affect

5. bounce card: mostly used inside to diffuse light..like a huge white poster board

6.reflector: used to redirect sunlight

7. flag: similar to barn doors, but are pieces of cloth
how would u light a chroma key?
done w/ 3pt lighting. u have to light both differently
what is the difference btwn a dynamic micorphone and a condenser microphone?
- has a coil that moves (like a magnet) when the diaphram recieves the sound waves. it doesn't require batteries and would most likely be used in noisey situations where u jus want to focus on one person..ex)handhelds

-has a diaphram on top and a metal plate underneath. the space in between the 2 is called the capacitence (holds the electric charge). This requires batteries, sensitive to sound, more expensive, extremely delicate
what are the 6 pick up patterns? examples/ uses..
1.Omni- directional:picks up sound all around it

2.Uni- directional:picks up sund only in one direction

3.Bi- directional:picks up from 2 sides

4.Cardiod: pick up pattern is like a heart

5.super cardiod:pick up pattern like the heart,but also alil piece in the back

6.Hyper cardiod: is like a heart, but stretched longer reach
what are the 7 types of mics?
1.handheld
2.onboard (mics on the camera..don't use)
3.desk
4.stand
5.lavs(mics built to clip onto ur clothing)
6.wireless(electrical energy is transformed into radio energy. has a small little wire on the back of it)
name the types of filters and wind screens...?
1.Blast/ Pop filters: used to eliminate unnecessary pronounciations. ex)pop

2.low pass filters: removes unnecessary low frequencies. any extra rumblin sounds

3.High pass filter: removes unnecessary high frequencies. ex) lights/ fridge

4.wind screens: knocks off wind sound
what is distortion, noise, and clipping?
-unwanted change in ur sound wave
-unwanted change, addition to sound
-when the needle goes into the red, it will go into clipping, in which it will cutt off b/c sound is too loud
what are the types of noise?
1.ambiant noise: fridge, ceiling fan

2.system noise: noise from cable or camera
what are the 2 ways to monitor sound?
-analog system: is a VU meter and arranges levels of sound. doesn't record instantaneous..changes in sound. levels should stay @ 0.

2.digital system:peak meter, which picks up every change in sound. should stay @ -12 to -20.
when it comes to XLR cables, what is the difference btwn balanced cords and unbalanced cords?
-has the 3 prong wires. everything is evenly balanced

-is a mini cable. ex)ones used for ipods
what is the difference btwn single system vs. double system sound?
-records video and audio to same recording device, which most cameras have

-where video and audio are recorded simultaneously, but are on different recording devices
what are the types of screen writing and their uses?
-screen play:each page is one minute for screen (used for short fiction films)

-split page:tells wats goin on shot by shot. one column video and the other audio

-semi scripted: cross btwn screenplay and semi- scripted