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106 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS DEADLY FORCE?
Any force that is likely to cause death or serious physical injury.
WHAT IS SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY?
Physical injury to the body that results in:

•Unconsciousness;
•Protracted and obvious disfigurement; or
•Protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.
IN WHAT SITUATIONS CAN DEADLY FORCE BE AUTHORIZED?
• Individual Self-Defense
• Effecting a lawful arrest or preventing an escape;
• Protection of property

Note: Protection of property is governed by standing rules of engagement (SROEs).
• Protection of Hazardous Materials or Deadly Weapons
•Deadly Force in Vessel on Vessel Situations
WHAT IS INDIVIDUAL SELF-DEFENSE?
The act of defending oneself or other persons by using force.
WHAT DO WE HAVE TO HELP US DECIDE WHEN DEADLY FORCE IS AUTHORIZED FOR INDIVIDUAL SELF-DEFENSE?
Deadly Force triangle.

The deadly force triangle ONLY applies to individual self-defense.
WHAT IS A WEAPON?
Any physical means to cause harm. In Deadly Force, harm means death or serious physical injury.

(Examples; guns, knives, chains, clubs, hands, feet, etc.)
CAN PHYSICAL SIZE BE CONSIDERED A WEAPON?
Yes, the mere size of the individual compared to yours can be construed as a weapon. 5'1'' 100 lbs vs. 6'7'' 300 lbs. Under such a situation, it’s not reasonable to believe that the smaller person could endure physical punishment from an individual of this size without risking serious physical injury or death.
IS THIS A TRUE STATEMENT?

“THERE'S A WEAPON ON EVERY BOARDING?”

If yes, why and give examples, if no, why not?
Yes, in addition to an individual’s hands and feet, you bring a 9mm on every boarding with you.
WITH REGARDS TO DEADLY FORCE, WHAT IS OPPORTUNITY?
Opportunity is a situation or condition favorable for attainment of a goal.

With regards to use of Deadly Force, we use a two pronged test to determine if opportunity exists, it is:

(1) subject has unrestricted access to the weapon and

(2) you or others are within the maximum effective range of the weapon.
WITH REGARDS TO DEADLY FORCE, WHAT DOES UNRESTRICTED ACCESS MEAN?
There is nothing to stop the subject from getting to the weapon.
WHAT IS MEANT BY MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE?
The subject is close enough to you or others that the weapon can be used to cause harm.
If the subject has a gun, when are you within the maximum effective range?
You will generally be within the maximum effective range if you are in the line-of-sight of the gun.
WITH REGARDS TO MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE, HOW LONG MUST YOU WAIT BEFORE YOU CAN TAKE ACTION?
When the subject has a “weapon” and “opportunity,” it depends on his “actions.” This does not mean that we are authorized to use deadly force at this point, but we should certainly make every reasonable effort to deter the threat from continuing.
WHAT IS THE 21-FOOT RULE?
Sgt. Dennis Tueller, of the Salt Lake City Police Dept. conducted a study that determined the average officer needed a 21-foot reactionary gap in order to 1) perceive a threat, 2) analyze the situation, 3) develop a strategy, and 4) initiate the response. (Now known as the Tueller Drill.) It’s important to note this is ONLY AN EXAMPLE OF REACTION TIME. Once the officer has the weapon out of the holster this study means nothing. The point here is that the subject does not have to be within arms distance to pose a threat.
WITH REAGARDS TO DEADLY FORCE, WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SUBJECT'S ACTIONS?
The physical ACTIONS that would lead a reasonable law enforcement officer to believe that death or serious physical injury are imminent to you or others.
WITH REAGRDS TO DEADLY FORCE, WHAT IS “IMMINENT?”
Imminent has a broader meaning than “immediate” or “instantaneous.” It is an “elastic” period of time dependent on the circumstances. A subject may pose an imminent threat even though he is not at that given moment pointing a weapon.
HOW WOULD SPECIFIC TASK DIRECTION TO THE SUBJECT HELP IN DETERMINING WHAT THEIR ACTIONS WILL BE?
If you clearly command a subject not to go for the weapon and they do, it’s reasonable to believe that they intend to use the weapon to cause death or serious physical injury.
IF A SUBJECT HAS A GUN IN HIS BELT AND HE TELLS YOU HE IS GOING TO KILL YOU, BUT MAKES NO MOVEMENT TOWARD THE GUN, DO HIS ACTIONS SHOW INTENT TO HARM?
No, the subject must take some physical action to demonstrate his intentions. At this point the subject has unrestricted access and opportunity (2 sides of the triangle), but his physical actions don't indicate that he intends to use the weapon.
DO YOU HAVE TO USE DEADLY FORCE WHEN IT IS AUTHORIZED?
No. You are not required to use force when your duties can be discharged without it; you may be able to use a lower level of force to control the situation even if deadly force would be authorized. If cover is available, you do not have to engage if you don’t think it’s safe to do so.
“You and your partner come onboard my boat. I shoot your partner, drop the gun, and put my hands in the air.” IS DEADLY FORCE AUTHORIZED UNDER THESE CIRCUMSTANCES?

Explain your answer
NO. The weapon is still present even though the subject dropped it, he still has opportunity since he has unrestricted access and you or others are within maximum effective range, but the subject’s actions have changed. He is no longer posing an imminent threat.
WHEN CAN YOU DRAW YOUR WEAPON?
A personal defense weapon may be drawn from its holster, or a long gun loaded with lethal munitions shouldered for firing (in preparation for firing), only if:

• Deadly force is authorized; or
• There is a reasonable possibility that the use of deadly force may be required.
WHAT LEVEL OF FORCE IS DRAWING YOUR WEAPON?
Level 1, but you should also issue loud, verbal commands.
WHEN DO YOU STOP USING DEADLY FORCE?
The use of deadly force should be stopped when the triangle no longer exists (e.g., subject gives up, weapon malfunctions, out of ammo, etc.) In other words, the subject has discontinued the action that prompted you to use deadly force initially.
IS COMMANDANT POLICY SHOOT TO KILL OR TO SHOT TO STOP?
We shoot center mass of the target presented to stop or gain compliance
When are Headshots authorized?
If that is the only portion of the subject visible, that becomes the target area.
IN ADDITION TO INDIVIDUAL SELF-DEFENSE, WHAT OTHER EVENTS MAY PUT YOU IN A DEADLY FORCE SITUATION?
The other two deadly force situations are:

• Effect arrest/prevent escape
• Protection of property
WHAT THREE ELEMENTS MUST BE PRESENT WHEN USING DEADLY FORCE TO EFFECT A LAWFUL ARREST OR PREVENT ESCAPE OF A PERSON IN CUSTODY?
1. There is probable cause that the suspect committed a felony involving the use or threatened use of deadly force, AND

2. The suspect is armed or otherwise poses a imminent threat of death or serious physical injury to any person AND

3. The suspect has failed to obey an order to halt, (if feasible and would not increase the danger to the officer or others).
When can Deadly Force be Used?
Deadly force may be used only when the officer has determined that, in view of the threat, the use of deadly force does not create an undue risk to any person other than the subject of such force.
WHEN CAN YOU USE DEADLY FORCE FOR PROTECTION OF PROPERTY?
The use of Deadly force is not normally authorized solely for the purpose of protecting property from theft, sabotage, intentional damage, or destruction. However, in certain circumstances, Area and District commanders may request authorization from Commandant to use deadly force for the protection of property which is either vital to national security or inherently dangerous to others (e.g., certain nuclear material, explosives, operable weapons, munitions).
YOU ARE CONDUCTING AN LE PATROL FOR A SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING A BRIDGE. I DON’T HAVE AUTHORIZATION FOR DEADLY FORCE FOR PROTECTION OF PROPERTY. HOWEVER, A BOAT LOADED WITH EXPLOSIVES IS HEADING FOR THE BASE OF THE BRIDGE.

CAN YOU DO ANYTHING TO SAVE THE LIVES OF THE PEOPLE TRAVERSING THE BRIDGE ABOVE?
Yes, you can. If, in the course of protecting hazardous materials or deadly weapons, Coast Guard personnel develop a reasonable belief that acts of theft, sabotage, unauthorized control, intentional damage or destruction pose an imminent threat of death or serious physical injury to any person, then the use of deadly force against the person(s) and/or vessel(s) committing those acts is authorized to defend life.
MAY I USE FORCE IN A VESSEL ON VESSEL SITUATION?
Yes, you may. The authority to use deadly force includes the authority to use ordnance to disable a vessel if necessary to prevent imminent and grave danger to officers or other persons.
WHOSE DECISION IS IT TO USE DEADLY FORCE?
Yours! It is an individual decision based upon the circumstances.
WHAT TYPES OF SMALL ARMS ARE COAST GUARD PERSONNEL AUTHORIZED TO CARRY?
• The Beretta 9mm PDW
• Remington Model 870 Riot Shotgun
• M-16 rifle
Can you take the M-16 aboard vessels to be boarded?
If yes, when? If no why?
The M-16 is not to be taken aboard vessels to be boarded and must remain in the small boat.

For personnel engaged in Operation Nobel Eagle boardings on commercial vessels, the CO may authorize boarding personnel to carry an M-16 to carry out the duties of maritime port security.
CAN YOU USE YOUR OWN PERSONAL WEAPON IF IT IS THE SAME TYPE?
No, only weapons drawn from a CG armory and only the weapons you have qualified on and have been authorized to carry by your CO or OINC.
WHEN CAN OTHER WEAPONS BE USED?
Personnel always have the right to use all available means to apply that force reasonably necessary to defend themselves or others from physical harm. In a self-defense situation, when

• The member has no issued weapon; or
• It malfunctions;
• or it’s lost; or
• Is otherwise unavailable;
• Or an authorized weapon or technique provides inadequate protection; then any weapon or technique on available may be used.
When can you draw attention to your weapon?
Unnecessarily drawing attention to your weapon is PROHIBITED. The courts have determined that drawing attention to your weapon can be considered psychological coercion. Psychological coercion is grounds for suppressing evidence.
WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF DRAWING ATTENTION TO YOUR WEAPON?
Pointing the gun at someone for no reason, patting the side of the holster while talking, etc.
What statements should be made after a shooting incident and whom should they be made to?
CG personnel involved in or witnessed to such incidents should not provide a statement, oral or written, to any person other than federal officials investigating the incident. State and /or local investigators inquiring about the incident should be advised that information may be furnished only after consultation with a Coast Guard law specialist. Coast Guard personnel involved need not make a statement if it might cause them to incriminate themselves.
WHEN ARE WARNING SHOTS AUTHORIZED WITH THE M9 PDW?
Never. Warning shots are NOT authorized with the PDW!
WHAT GIVES THE USCG AUTHORITY TO BOARD VESSELS?
Title 14 USC 89, gives the USCG authority to board any vessel subject to US jurisdiction, on the high seas and waters which the US has Jurisdiction at any time.
WHY DOES THE CG BOARD VESSELS?
For the prevention, detection, and suppression of US law violations.
WHICH CG MEMBERS CAN EXERCISE AUTHORITY TO BOARD VESSELS?
Commissioned, Warrant, and Petty Officers.
WHAT IS SEASII?
The Coast Guard may:

• Search
• Exam
• Arrest
• Seizure
• Inspect
• Inquire

Vessels upon the high seas and waters over which the United States has Jurisdiction, for the prevention, detection, and suppression of violations of laws of the United States.
WHAT ARE THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF A USCG BOARDING TEAM MEMBER?
• Reflect credit on the USCG.

• Be responsive to the public for education of boating safety and legal requirements.

• Assist the Boarding Officer.
WHERE CAN THE USCG BOARD U.S. VESSELS?
• Anywhere, except:

1) Exclusive state waters.
2) Foreign territorial seas without and SNO (statement of no objection)
WHEN ARE FOREIGN VESSELS EXEMPT FROM BOARDING'S?
• Temporarily using U.S. waters in innocent passage.

• Under claim of Force Majeure

• Government-owned non commercial

• Naval or Military

• An SNO is required to enter foreign territorial seas or board foreign vessel outside U.S. Jurisdiction.
Define: Reactionary Gap
Distance between Officer and Subject.
Define: Line of Fire
Officer positions should provide a clear line of fire in the direction of the potential threat at all times.
Define: Triangulation
Form triangularly oriented positions to provide overlapping fields of view of the potential threat while providing a relatively clear line of fire for all other officers.
Define: Observation
Officer positions should be selected to provide unencumbered observation of the entire area and with every member is in sight of at least one other member.
Define: Cover
An area which an officer may hide behind that will stop or divert the path of a bullet. (e.g., steel bulkhead, watertight door).
Define: Concealment
An area which an officer may hide behind to conceal his/her presence, but which will not stop a bullet (e.g., chair, curtains, wooden bulkhead).
Define: Fatal funnel
Area of a doorway that poses the greatest threat during entry.
Define: Weapons awareness
Knowing where your weapon is in relation to others. Keeping your weapon bladed away.
Define: Personal Contact
The Officer which has visual, verbal, or physical contact with the subject.
Define: Personal Cover
The Officer which maintains overall cover of the situation or subject.
Define: Survival Contingency Plan
Having a plan and a place to go if necessary to retreat from a high threat situation.
What are the 6 Levels of Force?
1 - Officer Presence
2 - Verbal Commands
3 - Control Techniques
4 - Aggressive Response Techniques
5 - Intermediate Weapon
6 - Deadly Force
What is the USE OF FORCE Policy Guiding Principles?
• Only that force reasonably necessary under the circumstances may be used.
• Excessive force may never be used
• Force shall not be used where assigned duties can be discharged without it.
• Nothing in the application of the Coast Guard Use of Force Policy shall be construed as to necessarily require personnel to meet force with equal or lesser force.
List the 4 Types of Subjects
1. Passive Compliant
2. Passive Resistor
3. Active Resistor
4. Active Aggressor
Define: A Passive Compliant Suspect
A subject who follows the officer's request or verbal directions.
Define: An Active Resistor Subject
A subject who does not follow the officer's request or verbal directions, offers physical resistance that prevents or may prevent the officer from gaining control, but does not attempt to harm the officer (e.g., bracing or pulling away, attempting to flee).
Define: Level I - Officer Presence
Officer presence is appearance, demeanor, verbal and non-verbal communication that create an atmosphere of compliance.
List 6 Key items that make up the BTM’s gear/uniform.
1. Authorized Boarding Uniform
2. Cover or Protective Headgear
3. Appropriate Footwear
4. Body Armor
5. Properly marked USCG PFD
6. Equipment Belt
What are two Verbal traits required at Level 1?
1. Speak clearly and authoritatively
2. Be courteous, take time to explain
What are three Non-verbal traits required at Level 1?
1. Body language
2. Gestures
3. Stances (Interview, Ready, High Guard)
What term can we remember to help us choose the words we use?
TACK
Explain what TACK means
Thorough- Convey the full meaning of the message

Acceptable- Socially acceptable to the audience,

Clear- No acronyms, CG jargon, slang, etc., and

Kiss- Keep it (the message) short and simple.
What term can we remember to help us use effective communication skills?
LEAPS
Explain what LEAPS Means
Listen - Listen to subject's concern, complaints, or problem.

Empathize - Show some understanding and compassion.

Ask questions - Seek info which could assist in negotiating a compromise or solution.

Paraphrase - Repeat the concerns back to ensure you have all the facts correct.

Summarize - Let the subject know you understand, but tell him/her what you must do.
Explain when you would move up the Use Of Force continuum?
Safety/Security - Situation threatens you or others.

Attack - If you or others are physically attacked.

Flight - Subject will not follow requests or verbal task direction or physically moves to avoid officer.

Excessive Reps - Repeated requests or tasking over and over.

Revised Priorities - Other events demand action (discover contraband, fight, erupts. . . )
When is it ok for CG personnel to accept gratuities, gifts, favors, etc....?
Never. CG Personnel are not allowed to accept gratuities, gifts, favors, etc....To do so would convey to the public and other law enforcement agencies the appearance of impropriety.
Define: Verbal Commands
Verbal commands are in the form of task direction with consequences aimed at the subject.
How should Verbal commands be delivered?
Verbal commands are to be delivered in an authoritative voice using voice inflection and should be reasonable in nature.
Define: Level 3 Control Techniques
Techniques or actions designed to bring a subject under control with a low probability of causing connective tissue damage, lacerations of the skin or broken bones.
What do Level 3 Control Techniques include?
These techniques include:

• Proper use of restraint devices
• Pain Compliance (Pressure Points & Joint manipulations)
• Strength Techniques

(Level 3 techniques will always be accompanied by verbal commands).
When would you use the Escort technique?
This technique is used to move a subject without causing pain while keeping the stress at a minimum.
When would you use the Transport Wrist lock technique?
This technique is used to move or gain control of a subject using pain compliance.
Define: Level 4 Aggressive Response Techniques
Techniques or actions with a probability of causing connective tissue damage, lacerations of skin or broken bones, or that will produce irritation of the skin, eyes, and/or mucus membranes.
What techniques are included in Level 4?
• Active Countermeasures (Upper)
• Active Countermeasures (Lower)
• Takedowns
• Chemical Irritants
List the 6 Upper Active Countermeasures:
1. Front Jab
2. Straight Punch
3. Forearm Strikes
4. Brachial Stun
5. Suprascapular Stun
6. Elbow Strike
List the 4 Active Countermeasures (Lower):
1. Knee Strike
2. Angle Kick
3. Front Snap Kick
4. Superficial Peroneal Kick
What are the two types of Takedowns?
Straight-arm bar: Apply leverage from your forearm into subject’s triceps

Modified Takedown: Grab subject's arm, collar, shirt, etc.
Describe the Basic Steps of the takedown:
1. Deliver a striking technique (2 knee strikes)
2. Use your power base to drive subject to the deck
3. Wedge your knee into subject’s armpit
4. Keep subject's arm straight and pinned to the deck.
What are your Primary & Secondary targets when using D.C. Pepper Spray?
Primary target: Eyes.

Secondary target: Nose & Mouth
What is the “Ballistic Needle Effect” & how can you avoid it?
Where the force of the spray is so strong as to create a needle effect. To avoid the effect, avoid using closer than 4 feet.
Define: A Passive Resistor Subject
A subject who does not follow the officer's requests or verbal directions, but offers no physical resistance to the officer's attempts to gain control.
Define: An Active Aggressor Subject
A subject who attempts to harm or attack the officer.
Before giving a verbal command, what should the officer consider?
First the officer must consider, "Is it necessary to do this in order to safely complete the boarding?"
When should Verbal Commands be given?
Verbal commands should only be given once the officer is prepared to follow up with the consequence offered.
When should Verbal commands be used?
Verbal commands should always be used when level three or higher is necessary.
How many bursts should you use & how long should each burst last?
Use 2, one second bursts.
What is the Maximum effective range of O.C. Pepper Spray?
The Max effective range of O.C. Pepper Spray is 10-12 ft
What are 3 things to be aware of when using O.C. Pepper Spray?
1. Wind Direction
2. Boarding Team
3. Other people on vessel
What are the 4 “S’s” to remember when using O.C. Pepper Spray?
Shake - Attempt to shake the canister, if time permits.

Shout - "OC" and issue loud verbal commands to the subject.

Spray - Two (2), one second bursts directly into the eyes.

Shuffle - Move to avoid attack. (get out of the tracks)
After spraying someone, and assuming they are no longer a threat, what should you do for them?
1. Reassure victim that the effects will subside.
2. Flush entire face with cool, fresh water. Encourage subject to open eyes.
3. Move to open air and ventilate. Allow subject to remove contact lenses.
4. Provide medical help after 45 minutes if symptoms persist or if subject requests.
5. Provide a cool wet towel after symptoms have eased.
Define Level 5 – Intermediate Weapons:
Actions with a high probability of causing connective tissue damage, lacerations of skin or broken bones, or that will (produce irritation of the skin, eyes, and/or mucus membranes.
What are the primary intermediate weapons?
1. Expandable Baton: The MODE (open vs. closed) of the baton is combined with the STANCE (ready vs. loaded).

2. Less Than Lethal Technology
What are the Closed Mode Strikes & Targets?
• Tie in strike II - Chest muscle
• Straight strike - Pelvic bowl
• Straight punch variation – Pelvic bowl

Remember to recover to a loaded stance!
What are the Open Mode Strikes & Targets?
• Arm strike - Inner or outer forearm
• Leg strike - Upper thigh or calf muscle
• Backhand cutting strike - Arm or leg

RECOVER to a LOADED STANCE!
What are 2 “Less than Lethal” Technologies?
12-Gauge Sting ball, for use on subjects more than 10 yards and less than 25 yards.

12-Gauge Fin Stabilized, for use on subjects more than 25 yards
Define: Level 6 Deadly Force
Any force intended to cause, or has a high probability of causing death or serious bodily injury.
What Are The Three Elements of Deadly Force?
1. Weapon - Any physical means to cause death or serious bodily injury.

2. Opportunity - Subject has unrestricted access to weapon. You or others are within the maximum effective range of the weapon.

3. Actions - Due to subject's actions, a reasonable person would believe that death or serious bodily injury is imminent.
When are you allowed to draw your weapon?
In preparation for firing only when deadly force is, warranted,

OR

If there's a reasonable possibility that its use may be necessary

In other words, ask yourself this question:

Is the use or threatened use of deadly force imminent or forthcoming?
If you can answer YES to this question than draw your weapon! ! !
When can you fire a warning shot from my M9 PDW?
Never!