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31 Cards in this Set

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Cell differentiation
process by which cells within a single organism become different from one another
Gene expression
which genes are transcribed and translated in a cell or organism
Transcription
the process of copying RNA and DNA
Translation
processes of protein synthesis in which the code in mRNA is used to produce protein by the ribosome
mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell compared with what it inherited from its parent
Gene or DNA duplication
segment of DNA or the whole genome appears twice in a duaghter cell or in an offspring
epigenetics
changes to DNA that do not change actual sequence of nucleotides. Leads to changes in gene expression
transcription factors
proteins that bind to DNA and initiate the transcription of specific genes - increases the rate of transcription of these genes
DNA condensation
coiling of DNA into tight configuration that doesn't allow transcription
DNA methylation
addition of methyl groups along the DNA molecule that enhances DNA condensation and so turns off the transcription of large segments of DNA
(non-)coding DNA
stretches of DNA that (don't) code for protein
telomere
stretch of non-coding DNA at each end of that chromosome which allows for the entire chromosome to be copied
signal molecule
molecule that binds to the membrane of a cell and changes its function; often activate transcription factors
alternative mRNA splicing
removing the non-coding regions from mRNA and splicing together the coding regions
IVF
reproductive technology which fertilizes eggs in a glass dish
Genetic selection
the process of selecting embryos with specific DNA sequences after the process of IVF
cloning
process of producing an organism that's identical in nucleotide sequence to parent organism
stem cell
cell has the ability to divide and whose daughter cells can differentiate into any number of different kinds of mature cell types
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk who discovered basics of genetics
Parent generation
first parents that are mated in a series of experimental crosses to test the rules of genetics
F1
1st gen that results from a cross of the parent generation
F2
2nd gen that results from cross of F1
trait
inheritable characteristic that can have more than one value
True breeding
population of plants that always produce the same value of a trait when crossed with themselves
Allele
different forms of the same gene that control a particular trait. each multicellular eukaryotic organism carries two alleles of each gene
genotype
alleles that an individual expresses, as a result of the genotype and its interaction with the environment
phenotype
the values of a trait that an individual expresses, as a result of the genotype and its interaction with the environment
homologous chromosomes
two versions of each chromosome found in a multicellular eukaryote
common descent
finding that all species evolve from a common ancestor
australopithicines
some of the earliest homonid species, existing about 2-3 mya
homo erectus
a group of related homo species that lived between 2 mya and 18,000 ya