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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Point pollution
known source of pollution
Non - Point polltion
unknown source of pollution
What are te major water Pollutants
Acid wastes
Organic wastes
Thermal Pollution
Phosphates from detergents
Water from Agriculture
Details of acid waste
Sources:
Effects of land/water/ph:
Sources:
burning coal/mining coal
Effects:
Acid rain which kills plants and deteriate statues
fresh water ph levels drop
increase bacteria and algae growth
Details of organic Waste
Sources:
organic materials
livestock waste
BOD
biological oxygen demand
how much disolved oxygen bacteria needs to break down materials
Anoxic
Hypoxic
A - increase in o2 levels
H - decrease in 02 levels
Details of Phosphate pollution
decrease o2 levels
incease bacteria/alage growth
kills aquatic animals
Details of agriculture pollution
Comes from what:
pesticides
fertilizers(organic and inorganic)
sediment
Details of thermal pollution
consequences:
change oxygen content of water
change respiratoin rates
" " life cycles
" " species composition
stress and death to animals
- Synthetic chemials
- sedimentary pollution
Sewage treatment
Primary
Sceondary
Tertiary
1st: screening out larger objects
2nd:biological process/ bacteria
3rd:clean up/through a number of techniques
deep injection wells
the placement of clean water into aquifers so it can not be contaminated
Euthrophication
excessive growth of plants due to an excessive of nutrients in the water source
Pollution effects on ecosystem
euthrophication
simplified ecosystem
ultimately- ocean contamination
Controlling air pollution
input methods:
- filters in factories
- wet scrubbers(spray water/gas)
- cyclone filters
- clean air act
- electrostatic precipitants
Controlling air pollution
output methods:
- prevent pollution to strart
- coal to corn
- cleaner fuel
- use less energey
- cleaner energy sources
characteristics of CFC's
- coolants in AC
- aersol in detergents(spray)
- bubbles in strrofoam
CFC
chlorofuorocarbons
chemistry of CFC's in stratospere
- takes a long time to reach stratoshpere
- broken down by radiation
- chlorine damages the ozone
Ozone holes in the poles?
- needs cold temperatures
- alot of light
- cold air trap CFC's
consequences of ozone decline
of UV on plants
PLANT LIFE
- decrease biomass
- disease
- function controls decline
- reduction in photosynthesis
- shorter
-
consequences of ozone decline
on aquatic ecosystem
- decrease phytoplankton productivity
- base of ecosytem
- major carbon sink
consequences of ozone decline
on animals
- cancer in animals
- skin cancer inhumans
- eye damage
- 1: .5
- immune system
- malonoma death rate up
- genetic damagge
- DNA absorb UV
- amphibian mortality
The montreak protocol
- voluntary stopping use of CFC's/ cutting back
Genectic Diversity
- # of different versions of a gene in a population
species
- a group or organisms capable of interbreeding and producing offspring
speices extinction
- 99 percent of all plantss/animals gone
todays causes of extinction
- habitat destruction
- pollution
- foreign species
- overuse of plants/animals
MVP
minimum viable population
foundation of agriculture and forestry
- looks for plant usage for medical means
- try to preserve biodiversity
Source of medicine and drgus
- 90% of all drugs use ingredients from plants
- less than 1% of plant life been thoroughly studied for medicine
Ecosystems services provided by biodiversity
- soils
- vegetation
- prevent erosion
- prevent top soil
- marshes
- cleans water
- remove sediment/nutrientd
bioremediation
- any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition
DNA fingerprinting
- enzymes found natural leave evidence of life
anthropocentric
- nieve
- divorce selves from natural world
- we are more important
biocentric
- all life is important
- morally bad to kill bad to kill any species
Maintaining Diversity
- legislation
- wildlife refuges
Saving individual species
- gene banks
- collection of seeds
- zoos
- capture/breeding
- botanical gardens
- breed plants
- aquarium
- save zone for aqualife
how many ppl a malnurished
1/3 to 1/2 of all ppl
we will need ____ the earth size in 50 years
double
global food problems
- population growth
- land and animal source declining
(1/3) of all calories come from animals
the green revolution
- using technology to increase food production
the green revolution
1850 - 1950
- creation of pesticides/feritlizers to increase food production
the green revolution
1950 - presnt
- use of crop breeding
- reistant plants (disease)
the green revolution
new
- expansion to 3rd world
problems with the green revolution
- expensive
- hybrids dont breed through
- only grow when pesticides used properly
- causes pollution
- loss of biodiversitty
- increase gap b/w rich and poor
ways to increase food production
- green revolution
- other food sources
- increase cultivated land
- increase irrigated land
- organic farmsing
- increase ocean use
need for pesticides
- extent of crop loss
- 1/3 of all food is lost to pest
- 20% in U.S
- vulnerable monocultures
- no natural diversity
- extent of use
- World: 5 billion lbs
- U.S: 4to6 lbs a person
- aggrevaste problems
advantages to pesticide use
- cheap
- kills pest
- may save lives
- decrease in food prices
- influnce chemial companies
disadvantages to pesticide use
- mobile
- broad spectrum..kills alot
- genetic resistance
- simplify ecosystem
biological magnification
- accumulate in living organisms
classes of pesticides
- chlorinated hydrocarbons
- ogranophosphates
- carbamates
bioacccumlation
- concentration of DDT in fatty tissues
organophosphates
- dont break down for months
- biodegrateable
carbamates
- nerve poison
- break down in days
- continue to be in environment
pest control other than pesticides
- biological control
- male sterilization
- juvenile hormones
- IPM
IPM
integrated pest management
chlorinated hydrocarbons
- banned from U.S
- cause problems with central nervou systems
Primary Air Pollution
added directly to the air
Secondary Air Pollution
produced by chemicals already in the atmosphere
Natural Polluants
volcanoes, forrest fires, pollen, black blizzards
Anthropogenic Pollutants
man generated/CO2- respirations
Common secondary pollutants
Smog
Ozone