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160 Cards in this Set

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What characteristics must something have to be considered "living"?
Must have a cellular organization, the ability to reproduce and develop, must maintain a metabolism and homeostasis and must respond to stimulus.
List the levels of biological organization in order from least complex to most complex.
Atom, Molecule, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Multicelled Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere.
What is the functional definition of science?
The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena.
A. Hypothesis
B. Theory
C. Law
A. An educated guess.
B. A test, standing concept used to interpret a broad range of observations that is always up for revision.
C. Truisms of science (i.e. law of gravity).
What is an atom?
The smallest form of matter that contains protons, neutrons and electrons.
What is the requirement for an atom to be considered "electrically neutral"?
The protons and electrons must be equal.
What is an ion?
An atom that has either lost or gained electrons and therefore has a positive or negative charge, respectively.
What is an isotope?
An atom that occurs with various numbers of neutrons in nature.
What is an ionic bond?
A bond between two atoms in which there is an exchange in electrons.
What is a covalent bond?
A bond between two atoms in which both atoms share electrons in order to complete their out shells simultaniously without an additional charge.
What is the difference between a polar and nonpolar covalent bond?
In a nonpolar bond the electrons are evenly spread throughout the molecule, while in a polar bond the electrons are focused one side, giving the molecule different charges on both sides.
What is a hydrogen bond?
A weak chemical bond that forms between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a different covalent bond.
What are the properties of an acid?
Contains a pH level that is less than 7 and will donate H+ when dissolved in water.
What are the properties of a base?
Contains a pH level that is greater than 7 and will accept H+ when dissolved in water. (release OH- that combines with H+)
What are the properties of a salt?
Releases ions other than H+ and OH- in a solution. Salts and water commonly form when an acid interacts with a base.
What does a buffer do?
It is something that resists changes in pH level.
What is oxidation?
A chemical reaction in which electrons are lost.
What is reduction?
A chemical reaction in which electrons are gained.
What is a dehydration synthesis?
A chemical reaction in which at least one of the reactants loses water. Also called condensation.
What is hydrolysis?
A chemical reaction in which water is split.
What is an inorganic compound?
They are nonhydrocarbons and relatively small molecules. Examples include water, mineral salts, and carbon dioxide.
What is an oraganic compound?
They are hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon derivatives and relatively large molecules. Examples include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.
What is a basic description of carbohydrates?
CHO make up simple sugars (monosaccharides) which form di-, tri-, and polysaccharides.
What is a lipid?
An organic compound that contains CHO and is relatively insoluble in water.
What is a saturated fat?
A fat that is full of hydrogen atoms.
What is an unsaturated fat?
A fat that isn't completely full of hydrogen atoms.
What is a phospholipid's function?
To build cell membranes.
What is a steroid?
A lipid that contains no fatty acid. Examples include cholesterol, vitamin D, sex hormones, ect.
What is a protein?
An organic compound made up of CHON that is used to make up amino acids.
What are amino acids?
Monomer of polypeptide chains. Consists of a carboxyl group, an amino acid group, and a characteristic functional group.
What is a peptide?
A group of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
What is an enzyme?
A type of protein or RNA that speeds up a specific reaction and remains unchanged by the reaction.
What is a nucleic acid made up of?
CHONP.
What is a vitamin?
An organic substance an animal needs for metabolism and must get from food.
What is a prokaryotic cell?
A cell that does not contain a nuclear envelope or membrane, mitochondria, plastids, ER, lysosomes, or golgi bodies. Examples include bacteria and archaea.
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A cell that contains a nuclear envelope and everything that it would usually consist of.
What is the cell membrane?
A phospholipid bilayer on the outside of a cell that is responsible for transporting things in and out of the cell.
What is the nucleus?
The nuclear membrane containing the chromosomes(DNA and protein) and nucleolus (RNA and protein) and is responsible for controling cell activities.
What are ribosomes?
The organelles responsible for protein synthesis.
What are chloroplasts?
Organelle in plant cells that is responsible for photosynthesis.
What is the mitochondria?
The organelle responsible for aerobic cellular respiration.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
Organelle responsible for modifying new polypeptide chains(rough), assembling membrane lipids and breaking down fatty acids and toxins(smooth).
What are the Golgi bodies?
Organelles that modify new polypeptide chains, assemble lipids, and package both into vesicles.
What is a lysosome?
A vesiclle filled with enzymes that function in intracellular digestion.
What do vacuoles do?
Stores water in plants.
What makes up a cytoskeleton?
Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
Lamark's theory of evolution is one of...
acquired characteristics.
Darwin's theory of evolution is one of...
natural selection.
What evidence is there for evolution?
Fossil records, biogeography, comparitive morphology, patterns of development, similar behaviors between species and microevolution.
What is taxonomy?
Identifying, naming, and classifying living things to show their evolutionary relationships.
What are the primary reactants and products in photosynthesis?
Reactants: 6 water + 6 CO2
Products: 6 O2 + glucose.
Describe the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis and where it takes place.
Light enters the grana, which is a stack of thylakoids that store chlorophyll, and energizes electrons.
Which structure is used during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
Stroma.
What is ATP?
The energy that our body uses.
Where does glycolysis occur and how much energy does it produce?
It occurs in the cytoplasm and produces 2 ATP.
How much ATP does the Krebs cycle produce?
2 ATP.
How much ATP does the electron transport systemm produce?
32 ATP.
List the major taxonomic categories in order, from most general to most specific.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Archaea?
prokaryotic, singled-celled.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Bacteria?
prokaryotic, singled-celled, reproduce by prokaryotic fission and conjugation.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Protista?
eukaryotic; vast majority single-celled, some simple multicelled; reproduce by binary fission and conjugation.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Fungi?
eukaryotic; vast majority are complex multicelled; possess cell walls of chitin, with or without cross walls; saprobes, heterotrophic by absorption; reproduce by spore–formation.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Plantae?
eukaryotic, complex multicelled, photosynthetic, cell walls containing cellulose.
What are the major characteristics of Kingdom Animalia?
eukaryotic, complex multicelled, heterotrophic by ingestion, no cell walls.
Which were the earliest cells that probably appeared around 3.8 billion years ago?
anaerobic bacteria.
What is a habitat?
The environment in which an organism lives.
What is a niche?
The role an organism plays in their habitat.
What is a virus?
Nucleic acid surrounded by a protein capsule that latches on to a host cell and uses the host cell’s metabolism and reproduction.
What are viroids?
Tightly folded strands or circles of "naked" RNA that infect plants such as potatoes and oranges.
What is a prion?
Small infectious "misfolded" protein that causes rare, fatal degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Example: mad cow disease.
Define competition.
Organisms trying to control the same limited resource.
Who benefits from Commensalism?
One organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
Who benefits from Mutualism?
Both sides benefit.
Who benefits from Parasitism?
One organism benefits and the other is harmed, but not killed.
What is the concept of biological magnification?
Concentration of a contaminant in body tissues increases as it is passed along in a food chain.
What are the four Biogeochemical Cycles?
Hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous cycles.
What are characteristics of Flagellated protozoans?
Heterotrophs, no cell walls, include zooplankton and pathogens, flagella.
What are characteristics of Euglenoids?
Photosynthetic autotrophs, some heterotrophs, no cell wall, flagella.
What are characteristics of Ciliates?
Heterotrophs, no cell wall, zooplankton, cilia.
What are characteristics of Dinoflagellates?
Mostly photosynthetic autotrophs, cell walls, can emit a flash of light (bioluminescence); responsible for “red tide”, phytoplankton.
What are characteristics of Apicomplexans (sporozoans)?
Heterotrophs, usually nonmotile and parasitic, malaria.
What are characteristics of Green algae?
Photosynthetic autotrophs, cell walls, phytoplankton.
What are the characteristics of Amoebozoans?
Heterotrophs, pseudopods, most have no cell walls.
What is the structure of Fungi?
Multinucleated filaments (hyphae) surrounded by cell walls.
What is the specialized reproductive cell of fungi?
Spores.
What are examples of nonvascular plants?
mosses and liverworts.
What are examples of vascular plants?
Ferns, conifers, and flowering plants.
What does xylem do?
It's sturdy tubes formed by connected walls of dead cells conduct water and solutes.
What does phloem do?
It distributes photosynthetic products throughout the plant.
What are characteristics of ferns?
Seedless; reproduce by spores; swimming sperm.
What are characteristics of gymnosperms?
Naked seed, cones, pollen grains are “sperm”.
What are characteristics of angiosperms?
Covered seed, fruit.
Poriferans
pore-bearing.
Cnidarians
stinging cells.
Platyhelminths
flatworms.
Annelids
segmented worms.
Mollusks
soft-bodied.
Nematodes
roundworms, unsegmented.
Arthropods
jointed appendages.
Echinoderms
spiny skinned.
What are the characteristics of Chordates?
Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, gill slits, and tail at some stage of development.
What are the characteristics of fish?
2-chambered heart; gills; external fertilization; ectothermic; water habitat or niche.
What are the characteristics of amphibians?
3-chambered heart; respiration by gills, skin, lungs; external fertilization; ectothermic; water and land habitat or niche.
What are the characteristics of reptiles?
partially formed 4-chambered heart; respiration by lungs and ribcage, internal fertilization; ectothermic; land habitat or niche.
What are the characteristics of birds?
4-chambered heart; respiration by lungs, ribcage, air sacs; internal fertilization; endothermic; land habitat or niche.
What are the characteristics of mammals?
4-chambered heart; respiration by lungs, ribcage, and diaphragm; internal fertilization; endothermic; land habitat or niche.
What are the major sub-classes of mammals?
monotremes, marsupials, placental, and primates.
somatic cells
all the cells besides sex cells.
gametes
sex cell- sperm and egg.
sister chromatids
duplicated chromosomes.
homologous pair of chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes similar in size and shape and the genes located on them.
diploid
both halves of each homologous pair. Somatic.
Haploid
One half of each homologous pair. Gametes.
Prophase.
chromosomes shorten and thicken, nuclear envelope breakdowns, nucleolus disappears, centrioles migrate to poles, and spindle fibers (microtubules) begin to form.
Metaphase.
chromosomes aligned along equatorial region mitotic spindle formed.
Anaphase.
separation of chromosomes (sister chromatids) and migration of chromosomes towards poles.
Telophase.
chromosomes spread out at poles, nuclear envelope forms, and nucleolus reappears, cytokenesis.
Meiosis
production of sex cells (gametes)
seminiferous tubules
where sperm develops.
interstitial cells
produces testosterone.
epididymides
sperm storage.
vasa deferentia
tubes that transport sperm during ejaculation.
endometrium
lining of the uterus.
myometrium
muscle tissue of the uterus.
perimetrium
outer covering of the uterus.
What causes the STD Trichomoniasis?
flagellated protozoan.
Epithelial tissue
covers the body; skin
Steroid hormones do/don't enter cells?
do.
Peptide hormones do/don't enter cells?
don't.
Pituitary glands secrete...
growth hormone (somatotropin), FSH, LH, prolactin, oxytocin
Thyroid
located in the throat, secretes thyroxine- regulates metabolism.
The Adrenal gland secretes
epinephrine, adrenaline, norepinephrine.
glucagon
blocks excess insulin to equalize glucose levels in the blood
insulin
Lowers blood sugar levels by telling cells to store glucose.
Acromegaly
The build up of GH after puberty resulting in growth of the hands, feet, face, and outside of the liver and heart.
Dendrites
Where information or charge is accepted, (Top most part of the cell) (Input zone)
Cell body or soma
Contains the cells nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, (Trigger zone)
Axon
Information travels along long slender body, (Conducting zone)
Axon Ending
Where Information is communicated with another neuron (Output Zone)
Resting polarity
inside negative, outside positive.
Active polarity
Inside Positive, Outside negative
Somatic nerves
Carry signals about movement of the head trunk or limbs.
Autonomic nerves
Are connected to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glans
sympathetic nerves.
secrete the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine which
are produced during times of excitement and danger.
parasympathetic nerves.
secrete the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine and are produced
in more tranquil times and help with house keeping processes such as digestion
and urine processing.
Interstitial (tissue) fluid
fills the spaces in tissues between cells, helps to keep Temperature right for the body’s functions.
lymph
similar to blood but, NO ERYTHOCYTES and few blood proteins.
allergies
Sensitivity to allergens. Causes the body to react by releasing Histamines and cytokines.
Immunity
the ability to resist and combat infections.
antigen
any molecule that the body recognizes as nonself and that provokes an immune response
Circulatory and Respiratory System of fish.
Pumps through a two chambered heart and in one continuous circuit.
Circulatory and Respiratory System of Amphibians.
Pumps through two partially separate circuits mixes with the oxygen rich blood in the heart.
Circulatory and Respiratory System of birds and mammals.
Distinct four chambered heart with two circuits, 1 to the lungs and 1 to the rest of the body.
erythrocytes
Red blood cells.
leukocytes
White Blood Cells.
What are platelets?
cytoplasmic fragments used for blood clotting.
sinoatrial (SA) node
pacemaker-outside heart
pulmonary circuit
r. ventricle  pulmonary arteries  lungs  pulmonary veins  l. atrium
systemic circuit
l. ventricle  aorta (largest artery)  arteries  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins (contain one-way valves)  venae cavae (superior and inferior)  r. atrium
hypertension
high blood pressure