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40 Cards in this Set

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What are the three general components of an ANS reflex arc?
Comprised of sensory, integrative elements, and motor.
Give an example of an ANS arc. Include the circuit.
Neuron from sensor for body temperature => dorsal ganglion => synapse in ventral horn => gangion => viseral muscle of blood vessel.
What is the overall function of the parasympathetic NS?
It delivers signals to various visceral organs and glands. By analogy, it can be deseribed as "rest/digest".
With what nerves/spinal cord segments are the parasympathetic fibers associated?
III - pupillary constrictor, cillary body

VII - Lacrimal gland, some salivary glands.

IX - Salivary glands

X - thoracic and abdominal viscera

S1-3 - pelvic viscera (Pelvic N.)
What is the overall function of the sympathetic NS?
Deals with "Fight or Flight". In more normal situations, it opposes the parasympathetic system and will tend to shut down things that are turned on by the PSNS.
With what spinal cord segments are the fibers of the sympathetic NS associated?
thoracic and lumbar spinal cord segments, T1-L2/L3
What are the two functions of the ANS?
Internal homeostasis

Response to stressors.
Where are the peripheral efferents for the PSNS?
Craniosacral regions
What is the fanout of parasympathetic effects versus sympathetic efferents?
PSNS: tend to act locally. Pre-ganglionic to post-ganglionic ratio is 1:3

SNS: tend to act more diffusely. Pre-ganglionic to post-ganglionic ratio is 1:10.
From what part of the cord do SNS pre-ganglionic fibers arise?
Lateral horn.
What is a terminal ganglion?
The target area for a post-ganglionic parasympathetic fiber. It is often a diffuse set of neurons located within the target.
What is a paravertebral ganglion?
A line of SNS ganglia which follow the spinal colum. Pre-ganglion and post-ganglion fibers synapse here.
What is a prevertebral (collateral) ganglion?
For deeper organs, like the heart and digestive system, SNS pre-ganglionic fibers skip the paravertebral ganglia and synapse a ganglia closer to the target.
Trace the circuit for the autonomic innervation fo the pupil (start at the nasal part of the retina)
Optic nerve -> descussate optic chiasm -> optic tract -> synapse in pretectal nuclei to bi-lateral parasympathetic fibers of III -> snapse to neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus -> synapse in ciliary ganglion (right and left) -> muscles of iris on each side.
Identify the neurotransmitters released on the peripheral autonomic nerve fiber termni.
ACh.
Define the signs of Horner's syndrome.
miosis (small pupil), ptosis (drooping eyelid), anhidrosis (lack of perspiration on the skin).
What is the basic cause for Horner's syndrome?
Loss of sympathetic innervation to the head.
What is the basic circuit in which a leison can occur which leads to Horner's syndrome?
hypothalamus -> brainstem/spinal cord -> sympathetic pathways between the eye/face through T1/T2 spinal cord segments.
What causes miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis in Horner's syndrome?
miosis - unopposed parasympathetic innervation

ptosis - loss of sympathetic input to the smooth muscle of the upper eye lid.

Anhidrosis - Lack of sympathetic input to the sweat glands of the face.
List the three functions of the hypothalamus.
Coordinator of the endocrine system

Coordinator of the ANS

Coordinator of the limbic system
In the hypothalamus, the medial and lateral zones are defined by the location of what structure?
columns of the fornix
What are the three regions in the medial zone of the hypothalamus?
posterior (mamillary) region

tuberal region

anterior (supra optic) region
What are the two nuclei in the posterior region of the hypothalamus?
posterior nucleus and mamillary nucleus
What structure passes through the lateral zone of the hypothalamus.

What is its orgin and destination?

What is its function?
Medial forebrain bundle.

From basilar parts of forebrain to brainstem.

"highway" for autonomic control
What are the three nuclei in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus?
dorsalmedial and ventralmedial nuclei. arcuate nucleus
What are the four nuclei in the anterior (supra optic) region of the hypothalamus?
Parventricular nucleus
Supraoptic nucleus
Anterior nucleus
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is the function of the parventricular and supraoptic nuclei?
Neuroendocrine functions
What is the function of the Suprachiasmatic nucleus?
circadian rhythms
What is the function of the Dorsomedial and Ventromedial nuclei?
Satiety (possibly appetite)
What is the function of the acruate nucleus?
Relase of factors influencing the anterior pituitary.
What is the function of the posterior nucleus?
sympathetic activity

sleep-wake cycles
What is the function of the mamillary nuclei?
Memory
What are the two neurosecretory systems that influence the pituitary?
Magnocellular

Parvocellular
Where are parvocellular nuclei found? What is their size? Where do their axons descend? What happens to the neurotransmitters they release?
Arcuate
Small nuclei
Anterior pituitary (adenohyphysis)
NT (releasing/inhibiting factors) released into portal system.
Pituitary will release various hormones into the blood depending upon the factors stimulating it.
Where are the Magnocellular nuclei found? What is their size? Where do their axons descend? What happens to the neurotransmitters they release?
Paraventricular and Supra Optic regions.

Axons descend into the posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

They release ADH and ocytocin directly into the blood stream.
What is the name of the tract that carries information from the hypothalamus to/from the brainstem and spinal cord? What do the descending fibers do?
dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

Descending fibers: control of GVE neurons.
What is the largest input tract to the hypothalamus? What two bodies are connected by this? What system is connected by this?
fornix

hippocampus to mammillary bodies

link between limbic system and hypothalamus.
What is the principle center and integrator of ANS activity?
hypothalamus
What are the three primary areas or systems that feed the hypothalamus?
RF

limbic system

GVA (spinal cord and brain stem)
What part of the hypothalamus drives the sympathetic NS? The parasympathetic NS?
posterior - sympathetic

anterior - parasympathetic