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170 Cards in this Set

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What is Cell Theory
Cells basic structral unit of organisms, made of cells from pre existing cells. Links all organisms together to get a common Ancestor.
3 ideas: Each and every living thing on this planet is made up of cells. All cells carry out their own life function. New cells come from other living cells.
What did Robert Hooke do?
first view of cells, made drawing from 1665. The pore-like compartments are cork cells from Oak Bark.
What did Anton von Leeuwenhoek do?
First to view single-celled "animalcules' in pond water
What is a Cell?
Life is built on one fundemental unit, living cell bound by a plasma membrane. compartments outside plasma membrane with a mixture of chemicals in a accua solution, capable of duplicating reproduce by dividing. Chemicals used to metabolize and promote energy
What is the Hypothesis of Spontaneous Generation?
Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials.
All cells fromcells hypothesis.
*Cells are produced only when preexisting cells grow and divide. Put broth in a flask and a goose neck flask to sterilize it. Cells only come from pre-existing cells not spontaneously from nonliving material.
Who conclusively tested the Hypothesis of Spontaneous Generation?
Louis Pasteur
What was different between the control and experimental treatments in his experiment?
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Who proposed the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
What are the 2 unifying ideas of biology?
Cell= fundamental structural unit of all organisms. All species related by comon ancestry and have changed over time via natural selection
Who was responsible for inventing the classification system for organisms?
Karl von Linne'
What is a taxon?
Scientific or Latin Name: made up of similar species. E.X. Genus(singular), Genera(plural), E.X. Homo,Species(Sapiens)
A taxonomic category or group, such as a phylum, order, family, genus, or species.
What are the different levels of the hierarchy in this classification system?
Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus,Species
What is Phylogeny?
Classify beyond appearance-consider genealogical.
Relationships=treu historical relationships amoung types of organisms.
What is Eukaryote?
Cells with
*Many organelles
*nucleus present-DNA
*Size varies(10-100)microns
*4 kingdoms: Protista,Plantae,Fungi,Animalia
What is Prokaryote?
Cells with:
*Few organelles
*No nucleus-DNA
*Very small (1-10)microns
*Cell wall but not like plant
*Kingdom Monera
How many Kingdoms did Linnaeus propose?
2 Kingdoms
1.Animalia
2.Plantae
What 5 Kindoms were proposed after the discovery of Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes?
Kindoms:
Monera,Protista,Plantae,Fungi,and Animalia
What level of classification was proposed by Woese et al. and what did they base their classification on?
Phylogenetic Tree:
Same common ancestor gave rise to. 3 Domains then all the kingdoms.
Classify by molecular components of cells. Tree was created based on Rrna
What is a Hypothesis?
A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation
How is a Hypothesis Tested?
by repeating the entire process, with each cycle resulting in an increase in understanding.
What is a Control?
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What are the key points in experimental design?
*Control must be induced
*Experimental conditioning must be carefully controlled
*Randomization must be used to minimize misalaneous effects among controlled groups
*Experiment must be repeated in large sample to produce more accurate results.
What is the Directed Dispersal Hypothesis?
Why are chili peppers Hot?
Does the presence of capsacin in chilles deter some predators but not others?
The Conclusion was that the presence of capaicin deters cactus mice but not thrashers.
A.Chilies produce fruits that contain seeds.
B.Cactus mice are seed eaters
C.Curve-billed thrashers eat chili fruits.
What was the control used in the experiment with cactus mice and curve-billed thrashers to test the Direct Disepersal Hypothesis?
?
What is Virulence?
Ability of strain to cause illness or death.
Which strain of Streptococcus Pneumonia is verulent?
Smooth Colony (S) Strain is virulent
(Polysaccharide coat prevents detection by host's immune system)
Which strain is benign?
Rough Colony (R) is benign
(Lacking a protective coat, it is recognized and destroyed by hots's immune system)
What is the process that changes the benign strain to the virlent strain?
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Early on, which of these 2 molecules was thought by biologists to be the more likely carrier of genetic information?
WHY?
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What 2 types of molecules were thought to be responsible for carrying genetic information?
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Based on the experiments of Avery, McLeod, and McCarty, which of these two molecules was determined to be likely carrier of genetic information?
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What did the Hershey-Chase experiment seek to determine?
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How did they tag the molecules in there experiments (what did they use for each type of molecule)?
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What was the consclusion of the Hershey-Chase Experiment?
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What is the structure of DNA? And who discovered it?
*Watson & Crick(1953)
*Polymer of monomers(nucleotides) Deoxyribose,phosphate group,nitrogeneous base.
*Double helix-Backbone of sugar and phosphate with nitro bases projecting off the back bone.
*Complementary base pairing-Baes=adenin,thymine,guanine and Cytosine. Hydrogen bonds between bases stabilize structure.
What are the 4 complementary bases and which are alwayse paired together?
Adenine,Thymine,Guanine,And Cytosine.
Adenine bonds with Thymine and Guanine bonds with cytosine
(A&T) (G&C)
What 3 hypotheses wre proposed for the mechanism of DNA replication?
Semiconservative replication,Conservative replication, and Dispersive replication
Who conducted the definitive test of the mechanism for DNA replication?
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What organisms was used in DNA replication experiments?
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How did the experimenters tag the DNA
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Which of the 3 hypotheses was accepted as the method by which DNA is replicated?
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What is a Chromosome?
A circular strand of DNA in bacteria that contains the hereditary information necessary for cell life.
What is a Gene?
DNA sequence that influence 1+ Hereditary traits
What is an Allele?
One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome.
Different version of a gene; alleles on homologs may differ.
What is Gene Locus (loci)?
Points on chromosomes where genes are located. Or fixed position on a chromosome
What is a sex chromosome?
XY male XX female
Either of a pair of chromosomes that determine whether an individual is male or female.
Wat is an autosome?
A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
What is a karyotype?
number and type of chromosomes present in an organism's cell
What is homologous pair?
?
What is Homologs?
?
What is ploidy?
number of each type of chromosomes present.
What is Diploid cell
Organisms with 2 of each chromosomes
What is Haploid Cell?
Organisms with one of each chromosomes.
What does n, 2n, 3n stand for?
?
What is Asexual Reproduction?
Any mechanism of producting offspring not involving fusion of gametes.
Reproduction occurring without the sexual union of male and female gametes.
What is Sexual Reproduction?
Reproduction involving the paired union of special cells (gametes) from two individuals.
What are gametes?
A reproductive cell having the haploid number of chromosomes, especially a mature sperm or egg capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to produce the fertilized egg.
What is fertilization?
1. The act or process of initiating biological reproduction by insemination or pollination.
2. The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
3. The act or process of applying a fertilizer.
What is a Zygote?
1. The cell formed by the union of two gametes, especially a fertilized ovum before cleavage.
2. The organism that develops from a zygote.
How many chromosomes are contributed to offspring from each parent?
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What is Mitosis?
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What are the characteristics of daughter cells that result from Mitosis?
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What is Meiosis?
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What are the stages of Meiosis?
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What happens in each stage of Meiosis?
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What are the 2 most important results of Meiosis I?
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What happens in Meiosis II?
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What is the spindle apparatus?
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What are sister chromatids?
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What are non-sister chromatids?
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What is synapsis?
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What is a tetrad?
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What is the synaptonemal complex?
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What is crossing over?
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What is Chiasma/Chiasmata?
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What is cytokinesis?
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What are the important outcomes of Meiosis?
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What is genetic recombination?
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What is self-fertilization?
(selfing)
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What is outcrossing?
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What is the changing environment hypothesis?
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What is life cycle?
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What does diploid dominant mean?
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What does haploid dominant mean?
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What does alteration of generations mean?
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What is an aneuploid cell?
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When do most mistakes in meiosis occur(I or II)
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What does n+1 mean?
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What does n-2 mean?
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What are trisomy and monosomy?
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What is an example of trisomy in humans?
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What is an example of monosomy in humans?
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What is inheritance?
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What is a trait?
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What were two leading hypotheses of inheritance during Gregor Mendel's time?
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What characteristics of Mendel's peas made them a good model organism?
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What is a phenotype?
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What is a Genotype?
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what is homozgous?
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What is heterozygous?
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What is pure line?
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What is a hybrid?
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What was the purspose of the reciprocal cross in Mendel's experiments?
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What is a dominant trait?
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What is a recessive trait?
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What is the Particulate Inheritance Hypothesis?
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What is the Principle of Segregation?
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In describing the genotype of an organism, what does a capital letter represend and what does a lower-case letter indicate?
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What is a Punnett Square?
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What is a Punnet Square based on?
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What does a Punnet Square do?
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What is a monohybrid cross?
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What is a dihybrid cross, and why did Mendel conduct a dihybrid cross?
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What is the Principle of Independent Assortment?
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hat is a testcross and why is it conducted?
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What were Mendel's major contributions to Genetics?
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What are the components of the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance?
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When do these actions occur in the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance?
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What genetic phenomenon did Thomas Hunt Morgan describe?
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What organism did Morgan base his studies on?
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What is linkage related to genes?
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What is a sex-linked trait?
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What is incomplete Dominance?
what is an example?
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What is codominance and what is an example?
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What is multiple allelism?
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What is an example of multiple allelism?
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Are genes influenced by the environment?
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What is Epistasis?
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What is an example of epistasis?
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What is a quantitive trait?
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What is polygenic inheritance?
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What are the 2 primary tenets of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?
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What is the Theory of Special Creation?
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How does the Theory of Special Creation differ from the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?
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What is Descent with Modification?
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What evidence is used to justify the arguent that species change through time?
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What are 2 methods used to age and organize fossils?
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What is an extant species?
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What is an extinct species?
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What is meant by transitional forms in the fossil record?
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What is a vestigial trait?
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What are some examples of vestigial traits?
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What is a phyogenetic tree?
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What is a structural homology and what is an example?
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What are 2 levels of developmental homology?
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What is a genetic homology and what is an example?
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What is the genetic code?
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What is a codon?
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What does a codon do?
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What does the limited number of codons and amino acids suggest about the genetic code?
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What are homologous traits?
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What are analogous traits?
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What is convergent evolution and what is an example?
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What are the 4 principle components of natural selection?
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What is evolution?
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What are the 2 principle ideas of the Theory of Evolution?
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What is Fitness?
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What is an Adaptation?
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What roles do fitness and adaptation play in evolution?
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Does natural selection act on individuals?
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Do individuals evolve?
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What do long-term observations of medium ground finches on Daphne Major tell us aobut the population?
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What did the experiment on alpine skypilots and bumblebees conclude and how is this relevant to natural selection?
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What is the difference between Inheritance of Acquired Traits and Natural Selection?
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What is acclimatization?
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How does acclimatization relate to adaptation?
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Is evolution progressive?
Why?
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How does the "Ladder of Life" contrast with Evolution by Natural Selection?
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Are all taits adaptive?
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What are some constraints to Adaptation?
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