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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the genera comprising the Flaviviridae?
Flavivirus
Pestivirus
Hepatitis C Virus
Which group of viruses are transmitted by arthropods?
Arbovirus
ARthropod BOurne virus
What are some diseases caused by Flavivirus?
West Nile Virus
Dengues
Yellow Fever
T or F:
Nearly all arboviruses are enveloped, positive sense, ssRNA viruses.
True! According to wikipedia, there is only one DNA arbovirus; all the rest are RNA.
T or F:
Flavivirus capsids are icosahedral.
False! Spherical with indistinct symmetry.
What are some viruses in the group Pestivirus? Which is technically not an arbovirus?
BVDV (not an arbovirus technically since it isn't arthropod borne)
Border Dz. Virus (BDV)
Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV)
Hog Cholera Virus (HCV)
What is a common sequel to West Nile Virus infection of birds? Of horses?
Birds - high mortality
Horses - CNS issues
What is the vector for West Nile Virus?
Mosquitoes
What are the key points in West Nile Virus pathogenesis?
TLR-3 dependent inflammatory response
Brain penetration
Neuronal injury
Innate immunity over-reaction
Lethal encephalitis
What are some differential dx for West Nile Virus in a horse?
Rabies
EPM
Equine Encephalitis (eastern or western)
Equine Herpes-1
How can West Nile Virus be diagnosed? What tissues are necessary?
PCR (swab, brain, feather)
IgM capture ELISA
Is there a vaccine for West Nile Virus?
Yup. Killed vaccine.
What is the tissue tropism for most Pestiviruses?
Lymphoid tissue
Mucosal epithelium
What are the two genotypes of BVDV? What are the two biotypes of BVDV?
Genotypes = BVDV-1 and BVDV-2
Biotypes = cytopathic and non-cytopathic
Under what conditions does BVDV cause mucosal disease?
When non-CPE strain mutates to a CPE strain.
What biotype will you find in normal-looking, chronically-infected BVDV animals?
non-CPE BVDV
What happens when a cow in early pregnancy contracts BVDV?
Abortion.
What happens when a pregnant cow (80-125d gestation) contracts BVDV?
Fetal lesion; retarded growth
Newborn is seronegative but sheds virus.
High probability of developing mucosal disease.
What happens when a pregnant cow (>125d gestation) contracts BVDV?
Fetuses survive and develop neutralizing antibodies
What sample and what tests do you run to diagnose BVDV?
Ear notch sample
IHC, antigen capture ELISA, RT-PCR
What is the most serious disease of swine? What virus causes this? What viral family does this virus belong to?
Hog cholera (classic swine fever)
CSFV, a pestivirus from Flaviviridae
How is the CSFV transmitted? Which route is most common?
Orally (most common)

conjunctiva
mucous membrane
skin abrasion
insemination
blood transfer (iatrogenic)
What are the two major genera of Togaviridae?
Alphavirus
Rubivirus
What lesions are present with persistent BVDV infection?
Eruptive lesions on skin of interdigital cleft
Intermittent diarrhea
What diseases does BVDV cause?
Mucosal disease
Diarrhea
Abortions
What is Hog Cholera? What family does the HCV belong to?
Hog Cholera is #1 dz of swine!
Classic Swine Fever Virus (CSFV)
Family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus
Is HCV arbovirus?
Nope. No arthropod vector.
What is the nature of HCV infection
Hemorrhagic disease; high mortalitity.
Can you explain the pathogenesis of HCV infection?
Replicates in tonsils
Multiplies in cervical lymphoid tissue
Systemic infection ensues
Endothelial damage causes hemorrhage.
What kinds of disease does Arboviridae cause?
Febrile disease
Encephalitis
T or F:
Alphaviruses are arboviruses.
True! They are arthropod borne
What are some viruses in the Alphavirus genus?
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus
Western EEV
Venezuelan EEV
Highlands J Virus
Getah Virus
Semlike Forest Virus
...whatever...
What is the tissue tropism for Alphaviruses?
CNS
Muscle
Connective Tissue
Reticuloendothelial System (dendritic reticulum; lymphoid)
What is the vector for the EEEV?
Mosquito
EEEV = Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in case your dumb ass forgot
T or F:
Birds are dead-end hosts for Alphaviruses.
False! They are definitive hosts; horses and humans are dead-end hosts!
Which viral family has dsDNA as their genome

a. Parvovirus
b. Retro
c. Circo
d. Adeno
E. Adenovirus
What genome does FMDV have?
a. –ssRNA
b. dsRNA
c. ssDNA
d. +ssRNA
d. +ssRNA
What family does BVDV belong to?
a. adenoviridae
b. Papovaviridae
c. Flaviviridae
d. Parvoviridae
c. Flaviviridae
What causes Mucosal Dz during BVDV infection?
a. Coinfection of BVDV1 and 2
b. Virulent strain of BVDV
c. Infxn w/non-CPE biotype of BVDV
d. Mutation of non-CPE biotype to CPE biotype
d. Mutation of non-CPE biotype to CPE biotype
What family does Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) belong to?
a. Picornaviridae
b. Flaviviridae
c. Togaviridae
d. Arteriviridae
c. Togaviridae
What are the two main diseases caused by Arteriviridae?
PRRSV (Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus)
Equine Viral Arteritis
T or F:
The Arteriviruses are distinguished from Togaviruses by their capsid antigens.
False!
Genome differences. Arteriviruses have nested mRNA like Coronaviruses but are like Togaviruses for everything else.
Which groups are considered "Nidovirales"?
Arteriviridae
Coronaviridae
Roniviridae
RonJeremyviridae (just kidding)
What is the tissue tropism for PRRSV? What other virus has a similar tropism?
Alveolar Macrophages (CSFV infects macs too)
Monocytes
Besides PRRSV, what other viruses cause respiratory disease in pigs?
Parvovirus
Circovirus
Picornavirus
Porcine CMV
Which viruses cause abortions in pigs?
PRRSV
Porcine Circovirus II
Porcine Parvovirus
"Blue Ear" is associated with which virus?
PRRSV
What is the reproductive badness caused by PRRSV?
Abortions
What is the tissue tropism for the Equine Abortion Virus?
Lymphoid tissue
vascular system
What are signs of equine viral arteritis?
Vascular necrosis
Pink eye
leukopenia (immunosuppression)
hemorrhage
thrombosis and infarct
edema
Which viruses cause equine abortion?
EAV (equine abortion virus)
EHV-1
What are the cells that both PRRSV and EVA infect?
Macrophages
What are the common clinical feature in both PRRSV and EVA?
Immunosuppression
Persistent infection
T or F:
Coronaviruses are some of the biggest RNA viruses.
True
What is the genome of the Coronaviruses?
+ ssRNA
What are the structural proteins of Coronavirus? Which is the major antigen?
S (spike) protein - major antigen
E (envelope)
M (membrane)
What is remarkable about the genome of Coronaviruses?
Infectious genome.
Nested RNA
What are common diseases caused by Coronavirus infection?
Diarrhears
Respiratory disease
Hepatitis
Encephalitis
What are some examples of Coronavirus?
Bovine CV
FIP Virus (FeCV)
Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus
Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus
What causes winter dysentery? What animals are affected?
Bovine Coronavirus Enteritis;
Bovid and Camelid
What happens to piglets (<7d) infected with Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus?
Acute Encephalomyelitis; up to 100% mortality
What happens to piglets <4wks but >7d old when infected with Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus?
Vomiting and Wasting Disease; high mortality; survivors become runts
When is TGE infection common? What animal is affected?
TGE = Transmissible Gastro Enteritis;
Common in winter; affects pigs
T or F:
Coronavirus infection in piglets has a high morbidity but low mortality; survivors end up as runts.
False!
Very high mortality for piglets!
What virus mutates to become FIP?
Feline Enteric Coronavirus
What is the difference between the 2 serotypes of FeCV? Which can lead to FIP?
Type 1 - common
Type 2 - recombinant w/canine coronavirus
Both can cause FIP
What coronavirus is endemic in catteries?
FeCV
What is the tissue tropism for FeCV?
Epithelial cells
T or F:
There is little cross-reactivity between strains of FeCV. Thus, persistently infected FeCV cats are not protected from further FeCV infection.
False!
Infected cats protected from infection with FeCV.
What is the tissue tropism for the FIP virus?
Macrophage
Monocyte
What are common signs of FIP?
Antibiotic-unresponsive fever
Progressive anorexia
Weight loss
Stunted growth
Ascites (wet form)
What are some blood abnormalities seen with FIP?
T-leukopenia
Hyperproteinemia
Hyperglobulinemia
Anemia
Bilirubinemia
What immune complex is seen with FIP?
Virus-IgG-C3
Where are lesions seen in the dry form of FIP?
Abdomen
Thorax
CNS (uveal tract in eye)
Surface granulomas
What viral infections can lead to cloudy eye in cats?
Herpesvirus
Adenovirus
Coronavirus
What is the common feature between Arteriviruse and Coronarviruses?
Both are nidoviruses (nested, +ssRNA)
What is the cause of the Blue ear and tiny black lesions on pig skin following PRRS infection?
Multifocal ischemia (I think...not sure)
What type cell are persistently infected following exposure of the Equine Viral Arteritis?
Prostate and Seminal Vesicles
What ss + sense RNA virus family contains the two major genera Alpha and Rubiviruses?
Togaviridae
T or F:
Alphaviruses are arboviruses.
True!
What are major disease types caused by Alphaviruses?
Encephalitis and febrile disease
Which one of the following viruses replicates in the cytoplasm?


Infectious canine hepatitis virus
Bovine herpes type 1 virus
Bovine papillomatosis virus
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
Swine Infleuenza virus
BVDV
Which one of the following viruses replicates in the nucleus?

Bluetongue
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
Rabies
Equine Influenza
Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3
Equine Influenza
Which one of the following viral gnomes is infectious?

Rift Valley fever
Canine distemper
Equine viral arteritis
FMDV
FIV
FMDV
Which one of the following viruses belongs to Nidovirale ?

FeLV
Infectious Bursal Disease virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
Equine Herpes virus type 4
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus
Which one of the following viruses causes latent infection following primary
infection?

FMDV
Bovine enteric coronarvirus
Bovine herpes virus
Bovine Rotavirus
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Bovine herpes virus
Which one of the following viruses will have its genome integrated into host genome after infection?

a. Equine Influenza virus
b. Equine infectious anemia virus
c. Equine Herpes virus type-1
d. West Nile virus (WNV)
e. Eastern Equine encephalitis
b. Equine infectious anemia virus
Which one of the following viruses has the most antigenic variation due to host immune pressure?

a. Avian sarcoma virus
b. Avian Influenza
c. New Castle disease
d. Fowl pox virus
e. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus
b. Avian Influenza
Which one of the following viruses can cause persistent infection?

IBR (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis)
BVDV (Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Bovine Rotavirus infeciton
Bovine mammillitis-pseudolumpyskin disease (BHV-2)
Bovine respiratory syncytial disease (BRSV)
BVDV
Which one of the following viruses is considered as an arbovirus?

Equine rhinovirus
Equine Flu
Equine Rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1)
West Nile virus
Equine Sarcoid virus
West Nile virus
Which one of the following viruses is an oncogenic retrovirus?

a. Bovine parainfluenza 3
b. Feline leukemia Virus (FeLV)
c. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)
d. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE)
e. Infectious laryngotracheitis
b. Feline leukemia Virus (FeLV)
Which one of the following viruses is a DNA tumor virus?

a. Feline panleukopenia
b. Bovine papillomavirus
c. Canine Adenovirus type 1
d. Feline Herpesvirus type 1
e. Equine Herpesvirus type 4
b. Bovine papillomavirus
Which one of the following genes is an oncogene, if acquired by a retroviral genome?

Epidermal growth factor gene (EGF)
Reverse Transcriptase gene
Haemagglutinin gene
Neuromindase gene
alpha-Interferon gene
Epidermal growth factor gene (EGF)
Which one of the following diagnostic tests is a viral antigen test?

a. Immunofluorence assay of frozen section
b. RT-PCR
c. PCR
d. Serum Neutralization
e. HI
a. Immunofluorence assay of frozen section
Which one of the following virus strains is considered an exotic Newcastle disease
virus?

Street strain
Mesogenic strain
Lentogenic strain
Velogenic (viscerotropic) strain
Classical strain
Velogenic (viscerotropic) strain
Which of the following virus families has segmented–dsRNA genome?

Adenoviridae
Reoviridae
Papovaviridae
Parvoviridae
Herpesviridae
Adenoviridae - dsDNA, lin
(MONEY) Reoviridae - dsRNA, seg
Papovaviridae - dsDNA, cir
Parvoviridae - ssDNA, nonseg
Herpesviridae - dsDNA, lin
Which of the following viruses causes acquired B lymphocyte deficiency in affected birds?

Visna-Maedi virus
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
Equine adenovirus type 1
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
Marek’s disease
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
Which of the following viruses causes acquired T lymphocyte deficiency in affected animal?

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
Infectious canine hepatitis virus
Equine adenovirus type 1
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
Equine infectious anemia virus
Equine infectious anemia virus
Which of the following viruses causes myocarditis in affected young animal?

Swine vesicular disease virus
Bluetongue virus
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Porcine circovirus type 2
Feline panleukopenia virus
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Which of the following viruses causes T cell proliferation in affected animal?

Pseudorabies virus
Canine papillomavirus
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Bovine papillomavirus
Bovine Leukemia virus
Bovine Leukemia virus
Which of the following viruses is associated with equine abortion?

Equine herpesvirus type 1
Equine herpesvirus type 4
Equine adenovirus
Equine papillomatosis virus
Equine infectious anemia virus
Equine herpesvirus type 1
Which one of the following viruses will have its genome integrated into host genome after infection?

Equine influenza virus
Equine infectious anemia virus
Equine herpes virus type-1
West Nile virus (WNV)
Eastern Equine encephalitis
Equine infectious anemia virus
Which one of the following viruses has the most antigenic variation due to host immune pressure?

Avian sarcoma virus
Avian Influenza
New Castle disease
Fowl pox virus
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus
Avian Influenza