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125 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of the nephron?
Nephron = renal corpuscle + renal tubule
What are the components of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerulus + Bowman's Capsule
Which part of the kidney is responsible for renin production? Which part produces erythropoietin? Where is Vitamin D activated?
Juxtaglomerular apparatus (renin);
Proximal convoluted tubules (EPO & Vit D)
T or F:
Glomeruli cannot regenerate.
True!
What two physical properties does the glomerular filtration barrier use to filter plasma?
Filters by size and charge
What are the size and charge selectivities of the glomerular filtration barrier?
Size between 68 and 69kd;
Repels negatively charged ions
What are three general processes that can damage the glomerular filtration barrier?
Inflammation
Degeneration
Immunologic reactions
What syndrome results from the failure of the glomerular filtration barrier?
Nephrotic syndrome
What are the clinical signs of nephrotic syndrome?
Proteinuria
Hypoalbuminemia
Anasarca
Hypercholesteremia
Lipiduria
Which region of the nephron has detoxifying potential?
Proximal convoluted tubule has cyt p450
Which region of the nephron is responsible for protein spillover resorption?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Which region of the nephron is responsible for Na resorption by active transport?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Which part of the nephron is principally responsible for urine concentration?
Loop of Henle
Which part of the nephron is under pituitary control?
Distal convoluted tubule (via ADH)
Which part of the nephron loop provides feedback on Na concentration?
Macula densa
Choose tubular disease or glomerular disease...
...proteinuria.
Glomerular dz
Choose tubular disease or glomerular disease...
...abnormal electrolytes.
Tubular disease
Choose tubular disease or glomerular disease...
...polyuria.
Tubular disease
What is the clinical significance to the fusion of the cranial poles of both kidneys (horseshoe kidney)?
no clinical significance!
Which domestic species has freely movable kidneys?
Cats!
What are the three main categories of nephritis?
Glomerulonephritis
Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Pyelonephritis
The interaction of immunologic and inflammatory reactants at the glomerulus describes...
...glomerulonephritis
What are major causes of primary glomerulonephritis?
idiopathic!
What are the two funny sounding terms that describe secondary glomerulonephritis?
lumpy-bumpy
smooth and linear
Choose lumpy-bumpy or smooth and linear...
...anti-GBM disease.
Smooth and linear
Choose lumpy-bumpy or smooth and linear...
...antibody made to glomerular basement membrane.
Smooth and linear
Choose lumpy-bumpy or smooth and linear...
...immune complex disease.
lumpy-bumpy
Choose lumpy-bumpy or smooth and linear...
...found in horses and humans.
smooth and linear (anti-GBM disease)
What are the two main glomerular responses to injury?
Cellular proliferation (fills Bowman's space);
Thickening of basement membrane
T or F:
Glomeruli are only visible macroscopically in cats.
False!
They are visible in all species
Approximately how many nuclei should be in each glomeruli?
90-120 nuclei
Abnormal thickening of the glomerular basement membrane describes which condition? What capillary condition is associated with this?
Membranous glomerulonephritis & "wire loop" capillaries
What condition exhibits thickening of the basal lamina AND hypercellularity in the glomerulus?
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
What is the end-stage of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis?
Sclerosing glomerulonephritis
What are major causes of embolic glomerulonephritis?
Vegetative endocarditis (L sided);
Actinobacillosis in foals
What are two diseases of dogs responsible for persistent proteinuria in dogs?
Glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis
What are some major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis in dawgs?
Pyometra
Heartworm dz
Infectious canine hepatitis
Lyme dz
Canine systemic lupus
What are some major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis in catz?
Virus associated (FeLV, FIP, FIV)
What are some major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis in horseses?
RARE AS A CLINICAL ENTITY! Wow, it's the one thing that horses can not die from!!
EIA & Strept do cause this
What are some major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis in piggies?
Hog cholera
African swine fever
Leukemia
What are some major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis in ruminants?
Rarely clinically important.
BVD (experimentally)
Finnish-Landrace lambs can't solubulize immune complexes
Which endocrinopathy can lead to a defect in the glomerular anionic charge?
D. mellitus causes a sialyation defect
Glomerular lipidosis is rare and only reported in...
...DAWGZ
What condition would give a waxy appearance to the kidney?
Amyloidosis!
What common halogen stains amyloid purple/black?
Iodine!
Which dog breeds are predisposed to juvenile progressive renal disease?
Dude...chill out and go get a beer! You don't need to learn all this shit! It's pretty much every dog anyway...
What is a top differential for dogs under 6 years dying of chronic renal disease?
Juvenile progressive renal disease
Tubular or tubulointerstitial disease is characterized by defects in which processes?
Concentrating ability
Tubular defects in absorption or secretion
Which region of the nephron is most susceptible to toxins?
Proximal convoluted tubules (most cyt p450)
What is the end result to most tubular disease?
Anuria!
What are some IMPORTANT chemical toxins contributing to toxic tubular nephritis?
Mostly transition and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Hg); also P
What are some important organic chemicals that exhibit nephrotoxicty?
EG, CCl4 (wait...this isn't truly organic), oxalates, melamine (thanks China)
Oxalate crystals are NORMAL in the kidneys of which species?
Calves
What are some general classes of nephrotoxins?
Metals
Organic chemicals
Plant poisons
Mycotoxins/antibiotics
Which region of the nephron is affected in hypoxic nephrosis?
loops of Henle
What proteins are associated with hypoxic nephrosis?
Hemoglobin and myoglobin (due to crushing injury)
What are major causes of interstitial nephritis?
Leptospirosis
Canine Herpes Virus
FIP
White Spotted Kidneys (E. coli in calves??)
Choose canine, porcine, bovine, or equine leptospirosis...
...associated with uremic odor.
Canine
Choose canine, porcine, bovine, or equine leptospirosis...
...associated with abortions.
Equine and porcine
Choose canine, porcine, bovine, or equine leptospirosis...
...associated with icterus.
Canine
Choose canine, porcine, bovine, or equine leptospirosis...
...can be hemolytic.
Bovine
Choose canine, porcine, bovine, or equine leptospirosis...
...usually subclinical or asymptomatic.
Equine and porcine
I say "turkey egg" renal hemorrhage, you say...
...Canine herpes virus!
When are canine herpesvirus infections contracted that result in multisystemic hemorrhage?
In utero or during birth
What condition are polar infarcts to the kidney indicative of?
Urinary blockage
What end-stage kidney condition is often seen in cats?
Chronic interstitial nephritis
Interstitial nephritis involving the renal pelvis is...
...pyelonephritis
What are the two mechanisms from which pyelonephritis arises? Which is more common?
Ascending infection (most common);
Hematogenous (descending) infection
T or F:
Pyelonephritis is more common in males than in females.
False!
What are the most common organisms responsible for pyelonephritis in the dog?
E. coli
S. aureus
What are the most common organisms responsible for pyelonephritis in the cow?
Corynebacterium renale
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
What are the most common organisms responsible for pyelonephritis in the horse?
Actinobacillus
Klebsiella
What are the most common organisms responsible for pyelonephritis in the pig?
Chlamydia suis
A metabolic disease with excess amounts of inorganic and organic compounds in the urine describes...
...tubular transport disease
T or F:
There are no histologic or morphologic changes evident in tubular transport diseases.
True! It is a metabolic defect
Which calculi do dalmations with tubular transport disease get?
uric acid calculi
Which calculi do dachshunds with tubular transport disease get?
cystine uroliths
What major clinical finding would be evident in a Basenji with tubular transport disease?
Glycosuria
Why would animals with glycogen nephrosis have bubble-wrap kidneys?
Gas produced from bacteria fermenting the sugars
What is the clinical significance to cholemic nephrosis? What causes this condition?
No clinical significance; caused by increased bilirubin in blood
What is a Cloisonne kidney? What is the significance of this?
Ferritin and hemosiderin in tubules and thickened basement membrane in goat kidneys.
No functional significance!
What is a common renal finding in terminally dehydrated piglets and dogs? What is the significance of this?
Dehydration salts; this is an artifact
Which renal arteries are commonly impacted by infarcts?
Arcuate and interlobular arteries
What are some common causes of renal hemorrhage as a sequel to septicemia?
MCF, Canine herpesvirus, Lepto, hog cholera, erysipalas
What is a common cause of renal hemorrhage in cows that also causes deformed calves that look like Corgis?
Oak bud/acorn toxicosis
How can anemia affect kidney function?
Anemia > low blood pressure > decreased GFR > oliguria and anuria
What are differentials for a pale gray to white lesion that surrounds the subcapsular vessels on a cat kidney?
FIP immune complex disease;
also don't forget lymphoma in cats!
You have a freshly dead lamb with gelatinous kidneys. What is the etiology of the death?
Clostridium perfringens (pulpy kidney disease)
What are some causes of bilateral renal cortical necrosis in pigs?
Haemophilus; Edema dz.
What are some causes of bilateral renal cortical necrosis in cattle?
Grain overload; metritis; mastitis
What are some causes of bilateral renal cortical necrosis in horses?
Azoturia
What is the largest parasitic nematode? Where can it be found?
Dioctophyma renale (in renal pelvis of dogs >2yo)
What is the most common tumor of parakeets?
Embryonal nephroma
What are the common primary neoplasms of the kidney?
Embryonal nephroma;
Adenoma & adenocarcinoma;
Transitional cell carcinoma
What is the most common metastatic renal tumor in cats and cows? How 'bout dogs?
Lymphosarcoma (cat/cow)
Hemangiosarcoma (dawg)
You have a young siberian husky that is constantly dribbling urine. What is wrong with it?
Ectopic ureter (most likely; they're predisposed)
T or F:
There is no hydronephrosis or hydroureter with a complete urinary obstruction.
True! Complete obstruction leads to death of organ!
What are the three categories of calculogenesis leading to urolithiasis? What is the best way to prevent calculogenesis?
Precipitation
Matrix nucleation
Absence of inhibitory substance
(low pH + water is preventive)
What are some causes of urolithiasis that affect most animals?
Bacterial infection;
Aminoaciduria;
Oxalate;
Hyperparathyroidism;
Dietary mineral imbalances;
water deprivation
What is a common cause of urolithiasis in ruminants?
Vitamin A deficiency leading to squameous metaplasia
What is a common cause of urolithiasis in dalmations?
Uric acid metabolic defect
What is a common cause of urolithiasis in cats?
Calicivirus & herpesvirus
What is a common cause of urolithiasis in sheep?
subterranean clover
A urolith that takes the shape of the renal pelvis is a(n)...
...staghorn calculus
Chalky white lines or stripes found in the inner renal cortex of dogs are usually...
...dehydration salts
What is the most common inflammation of the bladder? What sex is predisposed to this?
Females are predisposed to cystitis
Bovine enzootic hematuria is associated with what two causes?
Bracken fern poisoning and BPV-2
Hyperplastic inflammation of the urinary bladder in a cow is typically due to what form of cystitis?
Bovine enzootic hematuria
What do you think if you open up a horse bladder and see yellow/green sludgy urine?
EEEEEEEEEW! but this is normal!
Equine epizootic cystitis is associated with what feedstuff?
Sudan grass and sorghum
Which is more likely to have a ruptured bladder, a male or female foal?
Male! Due to rupture during parturition
Lymphoid follicles in the urinary bladder of dogs are indicative of what process? What is the significance of this?
Lymphoid (follicular) cystitis; no clinical significance, may be healed chronic cystitis
What is bubble-wrap bladder also called? What is the mechanism of this?
Emphysematous cystitis due to glycosuria and gas producing bacteria
In which domestic species is patent urachus the most common in?
Horse
An old male dog with a bubble on his butt might have...
...a perineal hernia
Which primary neoplasms are possible in the bladder? What species predispositions does each have?
Leiomyoma
Papilloma (cattle due to bracken fern)
Transitional cell carcinoma (dogs)
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...caused by reduced blood flow and reduced glomerular filtration.
pre renal
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...associated with anemia or dehydration.
pre-renal
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...associated with glomerulopathies.
renal
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...associated with cardiovascular disease.
pre-renal
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...associated with tubulointerstitial disease.
renal
Choose pre, post, or renal renal failure...
...associated with calculi or neoplasia.
post-renal
T or F:
Azotemia and uremia both indicate increased urine in the blood.
False!
Neither is really urine in the blood, uremia is the clinical disease while azotemia is increased blood urea and creatinine.
What are some classic lesions associated with uremia?
oral & nasal ulcers
ulcerative hemorrhagic gastritis or colitis
pleural frosting
hyperparathyroidism (renal 2')
Anemia
Pancreatic/lymphoid atrophy
What is a cheap and easy way to test for uremia?
Smell breath for ammonia odor