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79 Cards in this Set

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What are 5 features of successful passive transfer in calves?
Adequate antibody in colostrum
Adequate volume ingested
Calf GI motility
Calf GI cell function
Calf pinocytotic vesicles
What are good values for antibody in cow colostrum? What is an adequate mass of antibody to deliver to a calf?
between 40-50g/L (60-80 best)
100-150g ingested (200-300 best) - essentially 2L at birth and 2L at 12 hrs
What should the target serum Ig in a calf be at 24 hours?
1600-2000mg/dL (settle for 800-1000)
Besides inadequate antibodies, what other deficiencies does failure of passive transfer lead to?
Vitamin D and E deficiencies;
No colostrum (or no feeding) = lack of gut closure!
What is the MAJOR cause of obtundedness in calves <2d old? What are 2 major signs of this?
SEPSIS/TOXEMIA
Will see multisystemic signs or mild organ signs but SEVERE clinical signs!
What might the leukogram look like in a case of sepsis? What is the best diagnostic in septic cases?
MARKED NEUTROPENIA (like even totally zero, fur sure!); best diagnostic is the BLOOD CULTURE
What are some causes of calf sepsis? What is the MAJOR cause?
E. coli (major)
Salmonella, Clostridium
Anaerobes, aerobes, facultative anaerobes, etc (usually gram neg)
The BEST treatment for sepsis in calves is...
...CEFTIOFUR
What are some causes of anorexia/depression in calves?
Sepsis/toxemia
Hypoxemia
Hypo/hyperthermia
Hypoglycemia
Acidosis
Uremia
Developmental abnormalities
Weak calf/lamb syndrome
Localization of infection due to poor blood flow usually occurs in which tissues?
Umbilicus
Bone
Joints
Lung/liver
maybe skin too
What are some causes of complicated scours in calves?
Sepsis
Salmonella
BVDV
non-ETEC E. Coli
Clostridial enteritis
Neonatal foals are _________ until proven otherwise!
SEPTIC
What is the gestation length of the horse (average and range)?
340d (315-365)
What are some questions you should ask about the mare in a peripartum evaluation?
Signalment
Maiden/previous foaling?
Previous parturition issues?
Med issues during gestation?
Vaccination status?
Resident mare or shipped?
Dripping milk pre-foaling?
Vag discharge?
Diet?
Vitamin supplements?
What is some information that you should gather about mare during a foaling?
Duration of foaling?
Foaling attended/assisted?
How much assistance?
Malpositioning?
Foaling standing or recumbent?
Did mare remain down after foaling?
Did placenta pass?
What is some info to gather about the foal during a foaling?
Foal behavior after foaling?
What bedding foal is on?
Suckle response?
Why are wood chips bad for foaling?
Harbor Klebsiella
Why should mares have vitamin E supplementation?
Prevent degenerative myelopathy in the foal
Post foaling, the foal should be sternal in __________, standing within _________, nursing by ___________, and the placenta should pass by ____________.
Sternal 15 min; standing 1hr
Nursing 2hr
Placenta pass 3 hr
The placenta should be _____% of the foal weight.
10% (7-10 lbs normally)
If a foal "forgets" how to lay down it may indicate...
...hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
T or F:
The foals pulse/resp rate should be in the 60s within the first 24 hours.
False!
HR should be 70-100 (up to 120); resp rate should be 60-80 post foaling; usually 20-40 by 24 hrs
What is the enema rule?
ONE enema! Use fleet or soapy water.
What is a top differential for a foal that is standing/straining?
Meconium impaction
What should you look for regarding the foal's musculoskeletal system?
Flexural deformities
Lameness/weakness
Skull symmetry and doming
Vertebral malformation
Rib fractures
Swollen joints
What are normals for foals >1d old?
T - 101-102
P - 70-100
R - 20-40
Floppy lips in a foal indicates...
...premature/dysmature
How can you diagnose a cleft palate in a foal?
Feel it with your hand, bitch!
What is paradoxical breathing? When is it seen?
Abdomen and chest expand together; may indicate diphragmatic damage (hernia)
What do you think if the umbilicus remains moist?
possible patent urachus
What is hypopion in the foal indicative of? Hyphema?
Hypopion - SEPTICEMIA
Hyphema - trauma (dystocia)
When do you give prophylactic antibiotics in a foal?
When you want to be a dumbass.
What lab data should ALWAYS be obtained in a neonate foal?
IgG levels by snap test!
What are some causes of suspected failure of passive transfer in a foal?
Premature delivery
Injury/death to mare
Delayed nursing
Weak/ill foal (in utero infxn)
Old/young mare
Agalactia
Agalactia can sometimes be associated with _________toxicity.
Fescue
How do foals differ from calves in terms of gut closure? (maybe it's more how Schlipf differs from Cebra)
Suckle is necessary for gut closure in calves; gut closes regardless of suckling in foals
In foals, when does the maximal absorption of antibodies from colostrum take place?
Within the first 6 hrs
What level of antibody is IDEAL in equine passive transfer? What value indicates complete failure?
>800mg/dL is IDEAL
<400 is FAILING
What is a good specific gravity for equine colostrum? What is a good antibody level? What volume of colostrum should be given?
>1.060
3g/dL IgG is good
Give 1.5-2L in first 8 hrs
How is failure of passive transfer treated?
Transfusion of plasma! Usually 1-2L (at $300/L)!!
What are acceptable sources of plasma when treating FPT?
Mare or gelding
What is the most common cause for foal neonatal mortality/morbidity?
septicemia
What are some mare factors leading to a "high risk" foal?
Chronic illness/malnutrition
Prepartum colostrum loss
Dystocia/induced birth/c-section
Premature placental separation
Placentitis
Mare death
Aged mare
What are some foal factors leading to a "high risk" foal?
Dysmaturity/prematurity
Low birth weight
Resuscitation required post foaling
Meconium staining/impaction
Which are true regarding equine neonatal septicemia?
a) most are due to gram positive bacteria
b) Klebsiella and E. coli are very commonly implicated
c) foal may be BAR
d) need a blood culture for definitive diagnosis
e) pinnae petechiation is pathognomic
b) Klebsiella and E. coli are very commonly implicated
d) need a blood culture for definitive diagnosis
e) pinnae petechiation is pathognomic
(most are gram negative)
A sepsis score above ____ indicates a 93% likelihood of sepsis.
>11
T or F:
Fever is the most common sign in foal septicemia.
False!
They are more often HYPOTHERMIC
Which antibiotics are commonly administered to a foal with sepsis?
Aminoglycoside (amikacin) + penicillin
(NOT procaine penicillin)
What are complications due to foal sepsis?
Pneumonia
Septic arthritis
Meningitis
Osteomyelitis
Peritonitis
Seizures
Diarrhea
T or F:
Foals in sepsis should always get plasma supplementation.
True! Even if you don't suspect FPT
What sign is PATHOGNOMIC for foal sepsis?
Pennae petechiation
Premature foals are born before _____ days gestation.
before 320d gestation WITH ACCOMPANYING SIGNS OF IMMATURITY
A dysmature foal is typically born after...
a) 315 d with signs of immmaturity
b) 320 d
c) 340 d with signs of immmaturity
d) 365 d with signs of immmaturity
c) 340 d with signs of immmaturity
What are some signs of foal immaturity?
Thin skin
Soft, short, silky hair coat
Low birth weight
Tendon laxity (dishrag foal)
Pliant ear with curved tips
Soft droopy lips
Bulging forehead
What percentage of dysmature/immature foals survive and why?
<20% survive
Mainly due to immature lungs leading to hypoxemia and persistent metabolic acidemia
What is the most common cause of neonate foal colic? Who gets this more (colts or fillies)?
meconium impation
Colts>Fillies
What are differentials for a meconium impaction? How is it diagnosed?
Intussusception, Atresia coli, Strangulating lesion
(dx: digital rectal; US; rads)
How is meconium impaction treated?
a) Fleet/soapy water enema
b) Mineral oil enema
c) Oral sodium succinate
d) PILEDRIVER
a) Fleet/soapy water enema
d) PILEDRIVER (oral MOM, MgOH, and castor oil - dangerous and may cause bowel rupture)
What are some good treatments for meconium impaction?
200mL enema (fleet, soapy water, dioctyl Na-succinate, 4% acetylcystiene)
PILEDRIVER (MgOH, MOM, Castor oil orally)
T or F:
Uroabdomen usually occurs in male neonates.
True!
What are clin-path signs of uroabdomen?
High K & Low NaCl
Azotemia
Peritoneal creatinine 2x serum creatinine
How should you medically treat a neonate with a ruptured bladder?
NOT AN EMERGENCY!
Fluids; maybe double strength saline
Insulin + glucose (lowers K)
Drain abdomen SLOWLY
maybe add oxygen
"Red-bag" can predispose foals to what condition?
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and/or sEizURes (d/t premature placental separation and low O2)
What are some signs of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy? How is it diagnosed?
Dx by clinical signs!
Foal starts normal (hrs to days)
Loss of suckle initially
Loss of affinity to mare
Abnormal breathing/vocalization
CNS signs to stupor/coma
Usually normal lab values
The most frequent manifestation of foal CNS disease is...
...sEIzuReS
T or F:
Hypoglycemia is a common cause of seizuring in neonatal foals.
False!
Seizures are MULTIFACTORAL; hypoglycemia is a part of this but not the cause
There are a shit-ton of possible causes for foal seizures. Name all of them.
Hypoxic injury during birth
Sepsis
Congenital abnormalities
Idiopathic
Heat stroke
Metabolic probs
Infection
Liver dz
trauma
What are some metabolic issues that play a role in the seizing foal?
acidemia
hypoglycemia
hypoCa
hypo/hyperNa
hyperNH3
What are some infectious causes of foal seizures? Which is most common?
Bacterial/viral meningoencephalitis
Tyzzer's dz
Botulism
What are some congenital causes of foal seizures?
Hydrocephalus
Hydranencephaly
Hypomyelinogenesis
How are foal seizures treated?
Treat underlying cause!
Diazepam for immediate tx
Phenobarb +/- KBr
Neonatal isoerythrolysis is caused by incompatibilities in which factors?
Aa or Qa usually
Which breeds are predisposed to neonatal isoerythrolysis?
Mules
Standardbreds
Which is true regarding neonatal isoerythrolysis?
a) Both mare and stallion lack Aa/Qa factors but foal has antibodies to these
b) Mare has Aa/Qa factors but stallion lacks these
c) Stallion has factors Aa/Qa but mare lacks these
d) Mare, stallion, and foal have antibodies to Aa/Qa
c) Stallion has factors Aa/Qa but mare lacks these
How can neonatal isoerythrolysis be diagnosed?
Coomb's test
Blood typing
Jaundice foal agglutination test titer greater than 16
What are major signs of neonatal isoerythrolysis?
Jaundice/icterus/pale MM
Hemoglobinuria/emia
Tachypnea/cardia
Low PCV/total RBC
Weak foal, loss of suckle
In severe neonatal isoerythrolysis cases, how can a suitable transfusion donor be determined? Who is the PERFECT donor?
Crossmatching (major/minor)
Major is donor cells w/foal plasma; minor is donor plasma w/foal cells.
PERFECT donor is WASHED MARE RBCs
If you see a foal with signs of sepsis but negative blood culture and the dam has an unknown vaccination history, what should you be thinking? What is the prognosis?
Equine Herpes Infection!
Foal is gonna die...
How can Equine Herpes be diagnosed in a foal?
Dx at necropsy