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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what happens to osmolarity of ECF if person is infused with isotonic saline solution?
stays the same
what happens to osmolarity of ECF if person has loss of isotonic fluid? (example)
diarrhea
stays the same
what happens to osmolarity of ECF if person has high NaCl intake?
incresaes
what happens to ECF osmolarity if person is sweating in the desert?
increases (sweat is hyposmotic... more water than salt is lost)
what happens to ECF osmolarity in SIADH?
decreases
what happens to ECF osmolarity in adrenocortical insufficiency (NaCl loss)?
decreases (lack of aldosterone), kidneys excrete more NaCl than water
what happens to plasma protein [] and hematocrit in infusion of isotonic NaCl?
decreases (overall increase in fluid)
what happens to plasma protein [] and hct in diarrhea?
increases (from volume contraction)
what happens to plasma protein [] and hct in high NaCl consumption?
decrease (ICF shrinks to accomodate the increased osmolarity in ECF, this dilutes out the plasma protein)
what happens to plasma protein [] and hct when swaeting in desert?
protein increases
hct stays same b/c fluid leaves rbcs to offset fuid loss
what happens to plasma protein [ ] and hct in siadh
decreases
stays same
what happens to plasma protein [] and hct in adrenal insuff?
plasma protein increases
hct increases (from decreased ECF volume and rbc swelling from water entry)
how does vasoconstriction of renal arterioles affect RBF? how is this achieved?
decreases RBF
SNS
how does AII affect renal arterioles
preferentially constricts efferent arterioles unless it is a situation where there is a massive hemorrhage. then, so much AII is released that it constricts both efferent and afferent arterioles
how does ACE affect renal arterioles
preferentially constricts efferent arterioles
what effects does AII have on GFR?
increases it
what effect do ACE-I have on GFR
decreass it by dilating efferent arterioles
what does afferent arteriole constriction do to RPF?
decreases
what does efferent artiorole constriction do to GFR?
increases (by increasing Pgc)
what does increased plasma protein do to GFR?
decreases it by increasing osmotic pressure in GC
what does decreased plasma protein do to GFR?
increases it by decreasing osmotic pressure in GC
what does increased plasma protein do to RBF?
nothing
what does decreased plasma protein [] do to RBF?
nothing
what does efferent arteriole constriction do to RBF?
decreases it
what happens to the filtration fraction in afferent arteriole constriction?
(GFR/RBF)
GFR decreases, RBF decreases
FF no change
what happens to FF in efferent arteriole constriction
GFR/RBF
GFR increases, RBF decreases
FF increases
what happens to FF in increased plasma protein concentraton
GFR/RBF
GFR decreases, RBF no change
FF decreases
what happens to FF in decreased plasma protein []
GFR/RBF
GFR increases, RBF no change
FF increases
what happens to FF when ureter is constricted?
GFR/RBF
GFR decreases, RBF no change
FF decreases
what things are reabsorbed in the PCT?
glucose
AA's
most of the HCO3
describe how HCO3 is handled in PCT
HCO3 is in the lumen and combines with H that is secreted into the lumen --> H2CO3
Carbonic anhydrase --> H20 + CO2
which re-enters the tubule and reforms as H2CO3 with CA
the H is then secreted into the lumen and the HCO3 is reabsorbed
what happens in the TAL?
NKCC pump (blocked by furosemide): aids in reabsorbing Na, Cl, K
K flows back out into lumen and the gradient drives the absorption of Mg and Ca
also aids in the running of the NKCC pump
is the TAL permeable to water
no
what is the thin descending loop permeable to?
water, but not Na
what is happens in the early distal convaluted tubule
actively reabsorbs Na, Cl
Ca absorption is controlled by PTH receptors found here
what happens in the collecting tubules
Na is reabsorbed in exchange for K/H (regulated by ALDOSTERONE!!!)
reabsorption of water regulated by ADH (aquaporins)
which part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
TAL (and collecting tubule if there is no ADH)
where in kidney is EPO released from
endo cells of peritubular capillaries
what enzyme converts 25-OH vitamin D to its active form?
1-alpha hydroxylase
what do JG cells do?
secrete renin in response to low renal blood pressure
what does the macula densa do?
senses the amt of Na
where is the macula densa
part of the DCT
what do PGs do to the kidney
vasodilate the afferent arterioles (that's why NSAIDS can --> ARF by inhibiting PG)
what effect does aldosterone have on H
more H is secreted
where does aldosterone work in kidney?
DCT
where does PTH work?
PCT to decrease PO4 reabsorption
DCT to increase Ca reabsorption
stimulates 1-alpha hydroxylase in PCT
where is ACE released from?
lung