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31 Cards in this Set

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major cations/anions of ICF?
cations--K+, Mg2+; anions--protein, organic phosphates (eg ATP)
markers for measuring TBW
D2O, tritiated H2O
markers for measuring ECF?
mannitol, sulfate, inulin
markers for measuring plasma?
RISA, Evan's blue
markers for measuring interstitial fluid?
indirect: ECF - plasma (mannitol - Evan's blue)
markers for measuring ICF?
do indirectly: TBW - ECF (D2O - mannitol)
What happens if isotonic NaCl is infused?
isosmotic volume expansion
What happens to fluid volumes if you have diarrhea?
loss of isotonic fluid-->isometric volume contraction
what happens to fluid volumes if excessive NaCl intake?
hyperosmotic vol expansion
what happens to fluid volumes if you get lost in a desert? (dehydration)
hyperosmotic vol contractino
what happens to fluid volumes in SIADH?
hyposmotic volume expansion
what happens to fluid volumes if adrenocortical insufficiency?
hyposmotic volume contraction
treatment of SIADH?
demeclocyclene, water restriction
renal blood flow is what % of CO?
at low [ang II], what effect on renal arterioles?
preferential dilation of efferent arteriole--> protects GFR
over what range of pressures does renal blood flow remain constant (autoregulation)
80-200mmHg (thanks to myogenic mech and tubuloglomerular feedback)
How measure renal plasma flow?
use PAH, which is both filtered and secreted by renal tubules (so that~none in renal veins); this is the effective RPF
filtration fraction?
GFR/RPF (normal~0.20)
where does acetozolamide work in kidney?
(carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) works in PCT to inhibit resorption of HCO3- (w/o bicarb, don't have H+ needed for Na-H antiport) (N.B. can also tx acute mountain sickness)
middle/late PCT vs. early PCT?
early PCT--Na resorb.coupled with glucose, aa, phosphate, etc.; mid/late PCT--Na resorb.w/ Cl-
where do K+sparing diuretics work?
in CCD
role of alpha intercalated cells?
secrete H+ and resorb. K+ if hypokalemic (or acidic?)
what cell is responsible for excreting K+ in hyperkalemia?
principal cell (via Na-K ATPase and K channels)
where is phosphate resorbed?
only in PCT. ~15% of filtered phosphate excreted (imp for buffering later on)
effect of PTH on phosphate in kidney?
PTH inhibits phosphate resorb. in PCt via inc'd AC-->cAMP. (get phosphaturia and inc'd urinary cAMP)
which diuretics can be used to treat hypercalcemia?
loop diuretics
which diuretics can be used to treat hypercalciURIA
thiazides (increase Ca resorb.)
relationship of K+ and NH3?
hyperkalemia inhibits NH3 synthesis (RTA type 4), dec'd H+ excretion; hyPOkalemia--stim NH3 synthesis
ECF volume contraction and acid/base balance?
ECF volume contraction-->HCO3- resorb. , contraction alkalosis (N.B. in vomiting, met alk made worse if ECF vol contracts!)
why might you get tingling, numbness, muscle spasms in respiratory alkalosis?
signs/symptoms of hypocalcemia, b/c H+ and Ca2+ compete for protein binding sites and dec'd H+ means more bound Ca and less free Ca (~hypocalc.)
effect of insulin on K+?
insulin deficiency--> shift of K+ out of cells, hyperkalemia; insulin-->shift of K+ into cells, hypokalemia