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49 Cards in this Set

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multi-unit smooth muscles found where?
iris, ciliary muscle of lens, vas deferens (most smooth muscle is single-unit, works together)
how is smooth muscle contraction regulated?
NOT by tropomysin. Instead, Ca binds calmodulin. This complex activates MLCK which phosphorylates myosin-->activation
what is hexamothonium?
a ganglionic blocker that blocks nicotinic R (Ach) at AUTONOMIC ganglia but not @ NMJ
effect of Muscarinic R agonist in SA node?
inhibits AC which -->opens K+ channels and slows rate of spontaneous phase 4 depolarization--> dec'd HR
steps in photoreceptor pathway
light + 11-cis-retinal-->all-trans retinal-->metarhodopsin II -->transducin--> dec'd cGMP -->closure of Na+ channels --> hyperpol'n
3 cortical cell types in receptive fields of visual cortex?
simple cells (bars of light), complex cells (moving bars and edges), hypercomplex cells (lines w/particular length, curves and angles)
perilymph vs endolymph composition
perilymph--high [Na]; endolymph--high [K+]
what do utricle and saccule detect?
linear acceleration
stereocilia bent towards kinocilia-->
what are the only neurons of adult human that replace themselves?
what is noxious/painful smell stimuli detected by?
ant vs post tongue
ant 2/3--CN VII, sweet/salty, fungiform; post 1/3--CN IX, bitter/sour, foliate&circumvallate
pathway of taste
VII, IX, X--> medulla, ascend in SOLITARY TRACT, terminate on 2o neurons in SOLITARY NUCLEUS, ipsi to VPM to taste cortex
paraplegic lesion at C7-->
loss of sympathetic tone to heart
paraplegic lesion at C3-->
breathing mm disconnected from brainstem control centers
paraplegic lesion at C1-->
lesions above red nucleus lead to what kind of posturing?
what are climbing fibers?
originate in inferior olive (medulla); make multiple synapses onto Purkinje cells (middle layer cerebellum)--> complex spikes; "condition" Purkinje cells (role in cerebellar motor learning?)
output of cerebellar cortex?
Purkinje cells--inhibitory!
lesion of globus pallidus-->
inability to maintain postural support
what EEG waves predominate in a)alert b)relaxed c) asleep
a) beta waves b) alpha waves c) slow waves
what is the effect of IL-1 on temperature?
IL-1 acts on anterior hypothalamus to increase prod'n of prostaglandins which increases T setpoint
site of highest R in: a)cardiovascular b) pulmonary
a) arterioles; b) medium bronchi
what is Reynold's number?
predicts whether blood flow will be laminar or turbulent (higher-->turbulent)
dromotropic effect=?
2 mechanisms by which beta 1 R stimulate inc'd contractility of heart
1) inc'd inward current of Ca2+ during plateau phase; 2) phosphorylation of phospholambin-->inc'd activity of SR Ca pump
what is Hering's nerve?
carotid sinus n. (dec'd stretch--> dec'd firing of this nerve (CN IX)
2 effects of angiotensin II
1) stimulates synthesis and secretion of aldosterone by adrenal cortex (acts on aldosterone synthase); 2) vasoconstricts arterioles
Cushing reaction
inc'd ICP--> compression of cerebral blood vessels-->ischemia-->chemoR stim'd in vasomotor center-->inc'd symp outflow in inc'd BP
2 effects of vasopressin/ADH
1) acts on V1 R in arterioles--vasocontrict; 2) acts on V2 R in CCD--H20 resorb.
when/from where is ANP released?
from atria in response to inc'd atrial P
effects of ANP?
relaxation of vascular smc; inc'd excretion of Na, H20; inihibits renin secretion
in general, PG E's are?
in general, PG F's are?
how tell if surfactant levels in fetus are "mature"
lecithin:sphingomyelin >2:1
Fe3+ (ferric) bound to Hb (instead of Fe2+)
~%Hb sat'n of PO2 of 100 mmHg?
~75% Hb sat'n corresponds to what PO2?
~50% Hb sat'n corresponds to what PO2?
effect of pH on Hb-O2 dissoc'n curve?
dec'd pH (acidic)--> right shift and lower affinity
what is the Chloride Shift?
in RBCs, CO2 diffuses in -->H2CO3 (via carbonic anhydrase) --> H+ and HCO3-. The bicarb is exchanged for Cl- and leaves RBC
where is V/Q highest?
at apex (even though both V and Q are lowest there)
dorsal respiratory group vs. ventral respiratory group
dorsal--inspiration, basic rhythm, input from CN IX, X, output via phrenic; ventral--expiration but only if active (i.e. during exercise)
apneustic center?
in lower pons, stimulates inspiration (-->deep and prolonged inspiratory gasp)
pneumotaxic center?
in upper pons, inhibits inspiration (-->regulates inspiratory vol and RR)
how do central chemoreceptors work?
sensitive to pH of CSF, yet H+ cannot easily cross BBB. CO2 crosses and --> H+ and HCO3-. This H+ directly acts on chemoR
when are carotid and aortic chemoR stimulated, in terms of PO2?
if PO2<60mmHg
Hering-Breuer reflex?
distention of lung stretch R (in sm mm of airways) -->reflex decrease in breathing frequency
what are J receptors?
juxtacapillary R; in alveolar walls. If capillaries engorged (L heart failure!) these R are stim'd--> rapid, shallow breathing