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23 Cards in this Set

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The increase in skeletal muscle mass associated with exercise and enlargement of LV in HTN are examples of?
hypertrophy
A characteristic cellular feature of atrophy is (blank), which contain debris from degraded organelles.
autophagic granules
Replacement of one differentiated tissue by another, which is often reversible?
Metaplasia
Describe the (3) pathologic findings of early hypoxic cell injury?
Failure of cell membrane pump(leading to hydropic swelling, ER & mitochondrial swelling); Failed protein synthesis; PFK stimulation
Describe the (3) pathologic findings of late hypoxic cell injury?
membrane damange via loss of phospholipids; formation of myelin figures; cell blebing
the Hypoxic point of no return is marked by (3) features.
irreversible cell membrane damage; massive Calcium influx; and mitochondrial calification
Hypoxic irreversibilty occurs in how much time for neurons? myocardial cells and hepatocytes? skeletal muscle cells?
neurons: 3-5 minutes;
myocardial/hepatocytes: 1-2hr;
skeletal: many hours
What is a classic ultrastructural marker of barbituate intoxication?
proliferation and hypertrophy of the SER
Name 3 intracellular enzymes that degrade free radicals.
glutathione peroxidase; catalase; superoxide dismutase
Defined as the sum of the degradative and inflammatory reactions occurring after tissue death caused by injury.
Necrosis
Coagulative necrosis is most often caused by (blank A), and is marked by increased (blank B) and nuclear changes.
Coagulative necrosis is most often caused by ischemia, and is marked by increased eosionphilia and nuclear changes.
Describe the (4) nuclear changes that are the morphologic hallmark of irreversible cell injury.
Pyknosis, Karyorrhexis, Karyolysis, Disappearsance of stainable nuclei
What type of necrosis often occurs in the CNS and can be characterized by pus formation?
liquefactive necrosis
What is the leading cause of caseous necrosis, part of granulomatous inflammation with amorphic eosinophilic appearance?
TB
Deposition of fibrin like proteinaceous material in the arterial wall is (blank) necrosis.
fibrinoid
PCD differs from Necrosis in that PCD lacks a (blank) response.
Inflammatory
Describe the Extrinsic pathway of initiating PCD.
FASL activates Caspases 8 and 9 (initiating), which activate Caspase 3 and 6 (executioners)
Describe the Intrinsic/Mitochondrial pathway of initiating PCD.
loss of growth factors leads to loss of bcl-2; this leasds to release of cytochroe c and stimulaiton of bax and bak; cytochrome c also activates apaf-1 which activates caspase 9
Term denoting eosinophilic appearance in H & E caused by nonspecific accumulations of proteinaceous material.
Hyaline change
Yellowish discoloration which stains theblood, slcerae, mucosae and internal organs is caused by accumulating?
Bilirubin (catabolic product of hemoglobin)
In Hemosiderosis, hemosiderin accumulates in (blank)
tissue macrophages
What is "bronze diabetes"? What are the 3 clinical signs?
hereditary Hemochromatosis; micronodular cirrhosis, DM, skin pigmentation
How do Dystrophic and Metastatic Calcification differ?
Dystrophic occurs in damaged tissue but the patient is normocalcemic while metastatic occurs in patients with hypercalcemia.