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18 Cards in this Set

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Define: hypertrophy
Increase in size of organ or tissue due to increase in cell size
Is hypertrophy only due to increase in cell size?
No. There is also increase in protein synthesis and in the size or number of intracellular organelles.
What triggers hypertrophy?
Increased workload leads cells to respond with hypertrophy. (eg. exercise -> increase in skeletal muscle mass; HTN -> enlargement of left ventricle)
Define: hyperplasia
Increase in size of organ or tissue due to increase in number of cells.
Is glandular proliferation in the breast during pregnancy due to hypertrophy or hyperplasia?
hyperplasia
What cellular process leads to uterine enlargement in pregnancy?
BOTH hypertrophy and hyperplasia of uterine smooth muscle
What are autophagic granules? In what process are they seen?
Intracytoplasmic vacuoles that contain debris from degraded organelles. Seen in atrophy.
What are 5 possible reasons for atrophy of organs or tissue, a decrease in mass of pre-existing cell?
1. disuse
2. deprivation of oxygen or nutrients
3. less endocrine stimulation
4. aging
5. denervation
Chronic irritation of the bronchi due to smoking leads to what process?
squamous metaplasia
What organelle is primarily affected in the early stage of hypoxic injury? What process is interrupted?
1. mitochondria
2. decreased oxidative phosphorylation and thus lower ATP production
What are 3 consequences in the cell of decreased ATP availability?
1. failure of Na+/K+ pump
2. disaggregation of ribosomes and failure of protein synthesis
3. stimulation of phosphofructokinase activity
What happens in the cell when the Na+/K+ pump fails?
1. cellular swelling with large cytoplasmic vacuoules
2. swelling of the ER
3. swelling of the mitochondria
What is "hydropic change"?
cellular swelling
How can you detect irreversible high-amplitude swelling in the mitochondria?
marked dilatation of the inner mitochondrial space
What happens when phosphofructokinase activity is increased in the cell?
1. increased glycolysis
2. lactate accumulation
3. lower intracellular pH
Lower pH has what effect on cells?
reversible clumping of nuclear chromatin
How do you know when a cell is irreversibly damaged?
1. massive calcium influx
2. extensive calcification of the mitochondria
How long before neurons are irreversibly damaged by hypoxia? What neuronal cells are particularly susceptible to hypoxia?
1. 3-5 minutes
2. purkinje cells of cerebellum and hippocampal neurons