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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Name the 8 Thinking Processes
1. Connect
2. Organize
3. Image
4. Predict
5. Self-monitor
6. Generalize
7. Apply
8. Evaluate
What are the key ideas of reading and writing (chapter 1)
. Thinking is the essence of reading and writing
. Feeling is the energizer of reading and writing
. Language is the foundation of reading and writing
. the children we teach have individual, cultural, and language differences
. reading and writing are learned in a variety of ways
. children need a balanced literacy program
What are the 7 crucial understandings about print? (chapter 2)
1. Know why we read and write
2. Build background knowledge and concepts
3. Develop concepts about print
4. Develop phonemic awareness
5. Learn some concrete words
6. Know some letter names and sounds
7. Want to read and write!
Fluency is the bridge between _____ and _____
word identification and comprehension
What are some ways to improve fluency?
-meaningful connections
-word wall
-echo reading
-choral readings
-taped readings
-paired readings
-not letting children correct other children
What is a powerful way to help students grasp morphemic analysis?
-word families
-take a word and make more words out of it
What are ways children develop vocabulary?
-direct experience
-making connections
What is important when selecting vocab for special attention?
- number of words
- student selectoin (students find vocab during activies and teachers assess their importance
- teacher selections (present meanings as students encounter words that meet certain criteria
- when to teach words (before guided reading, display selected words)
What are the 5 ways to activate prior knowledge?
1. brainstorming
2. questioning
3. predicting
4. writing
5. discussion
Why is prior knowledge the bridge to new knowledge?
. students use prior knowledge to make sense of print
. activating prior knowledge before reading is an important part of the reading process
prior knowledge is the bridge to _____.
new knowledge
6 Key ideas for reading and responding to literature for children (chapter 6)
1. welcome the diverse world of literature
2. use literature to promote thinking and feeling
3. link reading and writing instruction with children's books
4. schedule daily self-selected reading
5. celebrate book response projects
6. enrich all subjects with literature

Literature links to thinking and feeling. Why?
Thinking- for others to form their own connectoins

Feeling- for readers to respond emotionally to what they read
Effective teachers link ____ and ____ instruction with children's books (chapter 6)
reading and writing
Two instructional arrangements for enriching all subjects with literature include what two studies?
1. theme study
2. book study
What does reading comprehension requre?
. word identification
. prior knowledge
. strategies
. engagment
What are the 4 steps for kindergarten self-selected writing?
1. draw a picture
2. write something
3. write your name
4. copy or stamp the date
What is the relationship between reading and writing?
-phonics knowledge allows fro decoding and spelling
-more they can read, the more they can write
- prior knowledge needed for both
-each model for eachother
-writing is often over learning reading
-writing instruction leads to reading fluency
What are some characteristics of self-selected writing?
-children come up with their own topics
-promotes engagement
-children share their writings
-1st draft is not graded
What is the difference between focused writing and self-selected writing?
-prompt given
-single draft more challenging than the process

-no prompt
-less formal
-often not edited
What are the best ways to assess writing?
1. engage students in writing from day 1
2. analyze writing for high frequency words
3. ask students to write same prompt halfway through the year and then at the end of the year
What are the 4 ways to assess progress?
1. assessing emergent literacy
2. assessing word strategy
3. assessing comprehension strategies
4. assessing writing
How are reading and writing complementary processes?
-what you learn in one helps the other
-reading you decode the words, writing you encode
-writing-manipulate using symbols and in the process learning how written language works
What are some characteristics of shared reading?
-studnets join the teacher to read aloud in unison from enlarged text-a big book, poem, etc.
-builds on previous experience with books
-expands vocab
-context learning specific words
-helps children become familiar with text
-provides language models
What are some charateristics of guided reading?
-a context in which a teacher supports each reader's development of effective strategies for processing novel texts at increasingly challenging levels of difficulty
-gives children the opportunity to develop as individual readers
-opportunity for teachers to observe
-develops reading stratgies for wwhen they read independently
Book buddy is guided reading because...
. provides the opportunity to read a variety of texts
. provides the opportunity to problem solve, to use strategies
. provides the opportunity to attend to words in text
. challenges the reader and creates context for successful processing on novel texts
. teacher seletion of text, guideance, deomstration and explanation is available to reader
What is the overall purpose of guided reading?
to enable children to read for meaning
What is the ultimate goal of guided reading?
to help children learn how to use independent reading stragies successfully
Children develop a network of strategies that allow them to attend to information from different sources. What are the 3 sources of information?
1. meaning cues
2. structure or syntax
3. visual information
What is the different between dynamic and traditional grouping?
-progress through a fixed sequence of books
-controlleed vocab words pre taught
-based on process through set group of materials


-difference in sequence of book level
-all children read the whole text to themselves
-based on daily observation and regular, systematic individual assessment
What are Clay's 3 categories of strategies?
1. strategies that maintain fluency
2. strategies that detect and correct error
3. strategies for problem solving new words
What are two critical factors in helping children read fluently
1. book selection
2. introduction
What are the 3 factors relating to the sequence of teaching skills that have served as the basis for lengthy debate?
1. which vowel letter-sound to teach first
2. whether to teach short or long sounds ffirst
3. whether to teach these two sounds conseculatively
Good readers read for meaing with _________ because they are focusing on the meaning but also paying attention to visual information
divided attention