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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Gram Stain
a differential staining technique that dvides bacteria into two groups

Gram (+) stain purple
Gram (-) stain red
Phase Contrast Microscope
made it possible to see cells without staining them
Dark Field Microscope
Excellent for observing motility and motility structures of microbes
Flourescence Microscope
used to visualize specimens that emit light of a given wavelength
Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy (DIC)
Creates an interference effect that intensifies subtle differences in cell structure
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
Contains a probe that establishes weak atomic forces between probe and the specimen generating digital information that produces an image
Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM)
Allows for 3-D images of microbes and other biological specimens
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Resovling power is much greater than a light microscope (1000x)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Image produced when electron beam is directed onto the specimen
Four advantages that small microbes have
1) higher surface to volume ratio compared to large cells

2) Nutrients and waste products pass in and out of the cell more easily

3) Capable of more rapid growth

4) Faster evolutionary change due to faster rate of mutation
How is the cytoplasmic membrane stabalized?
Stabilized by H-bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and some ionic bonds using Mg and Ca ions
Integral Proteins
Proteins firmly embedded in the membrane
Peripheral membrane proteines
proteins that are not embedded in the membrane
Archae side chains are called these.
Isoprene Hydrocarbons
Ether Linkages
In archae, link the glycerol component and the isoprene component

In Bacteria and Eukarya, link between glycerol and fatty acid
Permeability Barrier
Conrols what moves in and out of the cell
Transport Proteins
Responsible for carrying molecules across cytoplasmic membranes

they also accumulate solids against the concentration gradient
Simple Transport
Requires only a membrane spanning protein

ex. transport of lactose using the Lac permease symporter
Group Translocation
involves series of proteins in the transport event where transported substance is chemically altered

ex. phosphorylation of sugars (glucose, fructose) by the phosphotransferase system
ABC System (ATP-Binding-Cassette )
Involves a substrate binding protein, a membrane transporter and an ATP hydrolyzing protein
transport a molcule in a unidirectional fashion
transports a substance along with another substance
transport one substance across the membrane in one direction while simultaneously tranpsporting another substance in the opposite direction
Proteins that help export in prokaryotic cells
Three characteristics of the cell wall of prokaryotes
1) cell walls allow the cell to withstand pressure gradients

2) give shape and supply rigidity to the cell

3) Differences in cell wall structure are at the heart of gram staining
A rigid polysaccharide layer composed of sugar derivatives and a small number of amino acids
Peptides + Glycan Backbone
Peptidoglycan is comprised of individual adjacent strands that are cross-linked by amnio acids
How does cross linkage occur in Gram (-) Bacteria?
It occurs by peptide linkage of the amino group of DAP to the carboxyl group of the terminal D-alanine
Diaminopimelic Acid

Found in all Gram (-) bacteria
What does the glycan backbone consist of?
Consists of glucosamine and muramic acid
How does cross linkage occur in Gram (+) bacteria?
It occurs by way of a peptide interbridge
Teichoic Acids
Found in cell walls of Gram (+) bacteria that help bind postively charged ions like Ca and Mg
LPS (Lipopolysaccharide Layer)
Outer wall found in Gram (-) bacteria

A second lipid bilayer composes of a phospholipid, protein, and polysaccharide
Functions of Outer Membrane
1) Major function is structural

2) Secretes toxic substances called "endotoxins"

3) Provides channels for passage of hydrophillic substances out of the cell using "porin structures"
breaks bonds between glucosamine and muramic acid in the glycan backbone of peptidoglycan

found in body fluids like saliva and tears
When cell wall is damaged and water enters the cell causing the cell to burst
when a bacterium loses their cell wall but still survive

rarely seen in nature
What bacteria and archae groups both naturally lack cell walls?
Mycoplasms and Thermoplasma respectively
very similar to peptidoglycan

some cell walls of archae consist of this
What is pseudo-peptidoglycan made of?
Minuronic acid and glucosamine
What do some archae have instead of pseduo-peptidoglycan in their cell walls, and what is the most common cell wall type among archae?
They may have polysaccharide, glycoprotein or protein

most common is paracrystalline surface layer (S-Layer)
Short, filamentous structures that enable the organism to stick to surfaces

found in many pathogens like salmonella and bordetella
long filamentous structures taht are involved in conjugation which is a form of genetic exchange
Capsule and Slime Layers
used to adhere to surfaces or encapsulate itself for protection
What is the purpose of cell inclusions?
function as energy reserves or reservoir of structural building blocks
carbon/energy storage polymer
storage depot for carbon and energy
inorganic phosphate granules used for making nucleic acids and phospholipids
accumulates as a result of sulfur metabolism from compounds like H2S
particles of the iron mineral magnetite

imparts a magnetic dipole to the cell allowing it to respond to a magnetic field
long thin whip like appendage that is attached at one end and free at the other
Polar flagellum
attached at one end of the organism
Lophotrichous flagella
multiple.. in group arrangement on cell
Peritrichous flagella
appearing at many locations around the cell surface
Shape and composition of flagella
helically shaped

composed of protein "flagellin"
Mot Complex
proton movement across cytoplasmic membrane through this drives the rotation of the flagellum
evolved means of responding to a physical or chemical gradient
a response to a chemical substance
a response to light
movement towards or away from oxygen
movement toward or away from conditions of ionic strength
Che Proteins
photoreceptor reacts with these in the cytoplasm to influence flagellar rotation