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23 Cards in this Set

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Barbiturates & Untoward Effects
1. BARBITURATES: Sedative-hypnotics and act as CNS depressants. Barbiturates were once used to treat many medical and psychiatric disorders; however, due to their lethal effects and the development of safer and more effective drugs, they are now rarely prescribed.
2. UNTOWARD EFFECTS: Slurred speech, nystagmus, dizziness, irritability and impaired motor and cognitive performance. An overdose can produce ataxia, confusion, agitation, disorientation, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, respiratory depression and death. Barbiturate usage causes a decrease in REM sleep, and abrupt cessation of usage can cause an REM rebound and nightmares. Chronic use can produce tolerance, psychological dependence and physical dependence. Without medical supervision, the withdrawal symptoms can be life-threatening. Barbiturates are frequently involved in suicide and accidental death, particularly when they are used with alcohol or another sedative-hypnotic.
Barbiturates & Untoward Effects
1. BARBITURATES: Sedative-hypnotics and act as CNS depressants. Barbiturates were once used to treat many medical and psychiatric disorders; however, due to their lethal effects and the development of safer and more effective drugs, they are now rarely prescribed.
2. UNTOWARD EFFECTS: Slurred speech, nystagmus, dizziness, irritability and impaired motor and cognitive performance. An overdose can produce ataxia, confusion, agitation, disorientation, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, respiratory depression and death. Barbiturate usage causes a decrease in REM sleep, and abrupt cessation of usage can cause an REM rebound and nightmares. Chronic use can produce tolerance, psychological dependence and physical dependence. Without medical supervision, the withdrawal symptoms can be life-threatening. Barbiturates are frequently involved in suicide and accidental death, particularly when they are used with alcohol or another sedative-hypnotic.
Anorexia Nervosa vs. Bulimia Nervosa
1. ANOREXIA NERVOSA: An Eating Disorder involving: a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight; an intense fear of gaining weight; a disturbed perception of one's body shape and size; and, in females, amenorrhea. A person who also binge eats and purges during the current episode receives the diagnosis Anorexia Binge Eating/Purging Type (DSM-IV). Over 90% of anorectics are female and onset is typically in adolescence.
2. BULIMIA NERVOSA: An Eating Disorder involving: recurrent episodes of binge eating, which are accompanied by a sense of lack of control; inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise or laxative or diuretic use; and a self-evaluation that is unduly influenced by body shape and weight. In contrast to Anorexia, the weight loss, if any, is not life-threatening.
Anterograde Amnesia vs. Retrograde Amnesia
1. ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA: The loss of memory for events and experiences that occur subsequent to an amnesia-causing trauma.
2. RETROGRADE AMNESIA: The loss of memory for events and experiences that occurred in a period of time prior to an amnesia-causing trauma.
Ackerman, Nathan
Ackerman, a psychoanalyst and child psychiatrist, is sometimes referred to as the "grandfather of family therapy" and is usually credited with adapting psychoanalytic theory to family therapy. Ackerman emphasized the dynamic between the biologically-driven individual and the social environment. For Ackerman, a FAILURE OF COMPLEMENTARITY in social roles underlies maladaptive behavior in an individual and family. A failure of complementarity limits a family's ability to adapt to change and thereby maintain homeostasis.
Anxiety (Psychoanalysis), Basic Anxiety & Neurotic Anxiety
1. ANXIETY (PSYCHOANALYSIS): To Freud, a key concept in normal personality development and functioning and in the development of pathological conditions. Freud distinguished between three types of anxiety: reality (objective) anxiety, neurotic anxiety and moral anxiety. All serve to alert the person to the presence of internal or external threats, which involve conflicts between the different structures of the personality or between the structures of the personality and reality. Underlying moral anxiety, for example, is a conflict between the ego and the superego.
2. BASIC ANXIETY (HORNEY): A feeling of dread or impending disaster that is attributable to the child rearing practices of one's parents. Parenting behaviors associated with basic anxiety include indifference and coldness, exceedingly high standards and constant criticism. For Horney, a person's personality reflects his/her strategies for coping with basic anxiety.
3. NEUROTIC ANXIETY (EXISTENTIAL THERAPY): In existential psychology, the anxiety that results when an individual attempts to evade facing certain "existential issues" and the existential anxiety that accompanies them; it is considered the cause of maladaptive behaviors.
Employee Assistance Programs
A mental health service program offered to employees by the employer. The professionals offering the services are employed by the organization or hired as consultants. Some EAPs offer a variety of services such as referrals, testing, crisis intervention and other short-term treatments. Others focus on specific issues such as drug abuse, alcoholism, etc. Managers and supervisors may attempt to obtain confidential information about employees from EAP therapists. In most situations, the employee's right to confidentiality must by maintained. An exception is when an employee has been referred to an EAP by his/her supervisor as part of a disciplinary action. In this case, it is often necessary for the therapist to inform the supervisor if the employee has attended counseling sessions and accepted the recommendations of the therapist. A therapist should make sure the employee is aware of the limits on confidentiality in this situation.
Adverse Impact & Eighty Percent (80%) Rule
1. ADVERSE IMPACT: The result of discrimination against individuals protected by Title VII and related legislation due to the use of an employment practice (e.g., selection or placement test). When use of a selection or other employment procedure results in higher rejection rates for such individuals than for the majority group, adverse impact is said to exist. The "80% rule" can be used to determine if adverse impact is occurring.
2. EIGHTY PERCENT RULE: A method for determining whether or not a selection or placement instrument is having an ADVERSE IMPACT. Applying the 80% rule involves dividing the hiring rate for the minority group by the hiring rate for the majority group: Adverse impact is suggested with the result is less than 80%.
Brainstorming
"Brainstorming" is a method of generating creative ideas in which individuals or group members are encouraged to freely suggest any idea or thought without criticism, evaluation, or censorship.
Aversive Conditioning
"Aversive conditioning" is a technique based on the principles of classical conditioning that involves pairing the target behavior (or stimuli associated with it) with a stimulus that naturally evokes an unpleasant response. Eventually, as the result of such pairing, the maladaptive behavior becomes associated with the unpleasant response and is avoided. Therapies based on aversive conditioning include:
1. IN-VIVO AVERSIVE CONDITIONING: Involves repeatedly pairing the target behavior with an aversive stimulus in order to reduce the attractiveness of the behavior. In-vivo aversive conditioning is often used to treat addictive behaviors, abnormal sexual behaviors and self-injurious behaviors. Pairing alcohol consumption with electric shock in order to reduce alcohol use is an example of in-vivo aversive conditioning. ("In vivo exposure" is exposure in a "real-life" situation, as opposed to imaginal).
2. COVERT SENSITIZATION: A type of aversive conditioning in which the client imagines engaging in the target behavior while simultaneously imagining (rather than actually confronting) an aversive stimulus.
Avoidance Conditioning & Escape Conditioning
1. AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING: In operant conditioning, the type of learning in which the organism learns to make a particular response in the presence of a cue (discriminative stimulus) in order to avoid an unpleasant stimulus. Avoidance conditioning is a type of negative reinforcement.
2. ESCAPE CONDITIONING: In operant conditioning, the type of learning in which the organism makes a response in order to escape from (terminate) an unpleasant stimulus. Escape conditioning is a type of negative reinforcement.
Adult Development
1. MID-LIFE TRANSITION: For Levinson, the period between ages 40 and 45, which is characterized by a questioning of one's life structure. This period may involve a "mid-life crisis," precipitated by a revaluation of one's past and an awareness of one's mortality. This period is also characterized by a shift in time perspective from "time-from-birth" to "time-left-to-die."
2. RETIREMENT: The "final chapter" in the work cycle. Retirement involves several predictable stages (pre-retirement, honeymoon, disenchantment and reorientation). Successful retirement is associated with the ability to maintain a lifestyle consistent with one's personality, having good health and having an adequate income and with doing adequate planning prior to retirement.
Age & Cognition & Gender & Cognition
1. AGE AND COGNITION: Although IQ test scores remain fairly stable over the life span, differences do appear on measures of learning and memory. Young children appear to have difficulty with memory tasks because they do not use rehearsal strategies, and older adults show deficits for several reasons, including a general slowing down of CNS processes and a lack of motivation and interest in memory tasks. Some research suggests that differences in the ways that younger and older children think are due, in part, to improvements in metacognition, or the ability to "think about thinking."
2. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COGNITION: Males and females do not differ significantly in cognitive ability. The only consistent finding is that, beginning in adolescence, females outperform males on measures of verbal ability and males outperform females on measures of math ability and visual/spatial skills. Some investigators attribute these differences to cultural and social factors and others to biological ones (e.g., differences in brain structure or brain maturation).
Barbiturates & Untoward Effects
1. BARBITURATES: Sedative-hypnotics and act as CNS depressants. Barbiturates were once used to treat many medical and psychiatric disorders; however, due to their lethal effects and the development of safer and more effective drugs, they are now rarely prescribed.
2. UNTOWARD EFFECTS: Slurred speech, nystagmus, dizziness, irritability and impaired motor and cognitive performance. An overdose can produce ataxia, confusion, agitation, disorientation, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, respiratory depression and death. Barbiturate usage causes a decrease in REM sleep, and abrupt cessation of usage can cause an REM rebound and nightmares. Chronic use can produce tolerance, psychological dependence and physical dependence. Without medical supervision, the withdrawal symptoms can be life-threatening. Barbiturates are frequently involved in suicide and accidental death, particularly when they are used with alcohol or another sedative-hypnotic.
Broca's Area & Wernicke's Area
Broca's Area & Wernicke's Area

1. BROCA'S AREA: Motor speech area located in the frontal lobe just anterior to the motor cortex. Broca's area is involved with the articulation of speech. Damage results in expressive aphasia, or an inability to produce speech.
2. WERNICKE'S AREA: Speech area located in the temporal lobe (usually left lobe). Wernicke's area is responsible for the understanding of written and spoken language. Lesions produce receptive aphasia.
Achievement Tests & Aptitude Tests
1. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS: Designed to assess an examinee's current level of skill in or knowledge of a particular content or behavior domain. Achievement tests are usually considered a measure of previous learning in a specific situation, but may also assess innate capacity.
2. APTITUDE TESTS: Assess an examinee's potential for learning a specific skill or performing a particular task. Although aptitude tests are usually considered measures of innate capacity, they may also reflect previous learning.
Culture-Fair Tests & the Leiter International Performance Scale
1. CULTURE-FAIR TESTS: Tests of mental ability that are designed to eliminate cultural biases, usually by using a nonverbal format and nonacademic items. Evaluations of existing culture-fair tests suggest that no completely culture-fair test has yet been developed. These tests are also called "culture-free" and "culture-reduced" tests.
2. LEITER INTERNATIONAL PERFORMANCE SCALE: The Leiter was developed as a means of evaluating "adaptability to one's environment." Because administration of the Leiter does not require verbal instructions or responses, it is considered appropriate for cross-cultural testing and for testing the hearing-impaired and language-disabled. The Leiter requires examinees to attach response cards to a response frame. Its tasks include matching colors, picture completion, number estimation, spatial relations and memory for series. The Leiter is considered appropriate for individuals aged 2 through 18. The Arthur Adaptation, a shorter version of the test, was designed for children aged 2 through 12.
Parameters & Statistics
1. PARAMETERS: Measurements derived from populations; a.k.a population values.
2. STATISTICS: Measurements derived from samples; a.k.a. sample values. When conducting a research study, the investigator does not have access to the entire population of interest; instead, he/she estimates population values based on obtained sample values. In other words, he/she uses a "sample statistic" to estimate a "population parameter."
Parametric Tests
See also "Nonparametric and Parametric Tests."
1. THE ANOVAs: (a) ONE-WAY ANOVA: Used when the study has one independent variable and one dependent variable measured on an interval or ratio scale. The one-way ANOVA compares the means of two or more groups and yields an F-ratio. When the treatment has had an effect, the F-ratio is greater than 1.0. (b) FACTORIAL ANOVA: Used when the study has two or more independent variables (see "Factorial Design"). (c) MANOVA: Used when the study has one or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables, measured on an interval or ratio scale. It lowers experimentwise error by analyzing the effects of the independent variable(s) simultaneously on all dependent variables. (d) ANCOVA: Dependent variable scores are adjusted on the basis of scores on an extraneous variable in order to control variability in the dependent variable due to an extraneous variable. (e) RANDOMIZED BLOCK FACTORIAL ANOVA: Used when blocking has been used to control an extraneous variable. The main and interaction effects of the extraneous variable are statistically analyzed.
2. STUDENT'S t-TESTS: (a) SINGLE SAMPLE: Compares one sample mean to a known or hypothesized population mean. (b) CORRELATED SAMPLES: Compares two sample means when the subjects in two groups are related; e.g., they are matched on an extraneous variable. (c) INDEPENDENT SAMPLES: Compares two sample means when the subjects in two groups are independent (unrelated).
Sex-Role Stereotypes
These are stereotypes related to gender differences. Some of the differences identified in the literature (e.g., differences related to need for achievement and conformity) have been attributed to research methodology rather than true gender differences. Others -- in particular, aggression -- seem to be true differences that may have a biological basis.
Social Ecology
Concerned with the impact of the physical environment on behavior.
1. CROWDING: (a) According to the "density intensity hypothesis," a crowd enhances positive situations, but makes unpleasant situations even more unpleasant (Deaux and Wrightsman, 1988). (b) Crowding has little or no impact on simple tasks, but can adversely affect performance on complex tasks. (c) The perception of control helps people cope better in crowded situations. (d) A person's need for PERSONAL SPACE contributes to the effects of crowding. Americans, people with low self-esteem or high in authoritarianism, violent individuals and men tend to require more personal space. Violations of personal space can cause anxiety, irritability and increased aggression.
2. NOISE: Irritating noise does not affect performance on simple tasks, but usually has adverse effects on complex tasks, especially when the noise is intermittent and uncontrollable and involves conversation.
3. ARCHITECTURE: (a) High-rise living is associated with several negative effects; e.g., increased psychological problems, less satisfactory social interactions, higher crime rates. (b) Group members seated at the ends of tables tend to be more dominant. (c) Students sitting in front desks or in the middle row tend to participate more in class discussions and receive higher grades.
Steps in Test Construction
1. SPECIFY THE TEST'S PURPOSE: Identify the examinees to whom the test will be administered, specify the goals of the test and define the attributes (e.g., skills, knowledge) that must be measured to achieve those goals.
2. ITEM GENERATION: Translate the attribute(s) to be measured by the test into a set of observables (e.g., for a test that will assess learning in a course, systematically analyze the course content), specify the format of the test (e.g., maximal vs. typical performance, speed vs. power, objective vs. subjective) and select a scoring method.
3. ITEM TRYOUT AND ANALYSIS: Generate (write and/or select) test items. This usually yields more items than will be included in the final version of the test. Item analysis is used to obtain information about each item in order to determine which items to keep. In this process, the items are administered to a sample of examinees similar to those who will be taking the final version of the test. The items are then evaluated in terms of difficulty level, discrimination, etc. (See also "Item Difficulty Index and Item Discrimination Index.")
4. STANDARDIZATION: See "Standardization."
True Score vs. Obtained Score
See also "Classical Test Theory."
1. TRUE SCORE: The score an examinee would obtain on a test if the test could measure the given attribute without error; in other words, if the test were perfectly reliable, an examinee's true score would reflect his/her actual status on the attribute being measured by the test. According to classical test theory, however, there is no such thing as a perfectly reliable test. Therefore, a true score is a hypothetical test score because one can never know its value.
2. OBTAINED SCORE: According to classical test theory, an examinee's obtained score is equal to his/her true score plus error. Error, or measurement error, refers to any factors unrelated to the attribute being measured by the test that affect an examinee's score on the test. (See also "Measurement Error.")