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13 Cards in this Set

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brain tumors comprise % of all adult tumors and % of all children's?
5% of adults (2.5% endog and 2.5% metasteses)
30% of children
Explain the development of symptoms from tumor growth, edema formation, and herniation?
1. tumors grow in a fix volume
2. Get edema because CSF and venous blood can't drain due to obstruction
3. Brain gets displaced and you get a herniation
3 sites of internal herniation, resulting in what specific symptoms?
1. Cingulate gyrus- herniates under falx and over corpus callosum
2. UNCAL- gets into tentorium (area that separates cerebrum from cerebellum).. gets PCA and 3rd nerve palsy
3. Medulla gets pushed down into foramen Magnum ***see cardiac and respiratory signs*
What to think of when you see a white ring enhancing lesion on MRI? What does white area signify?
think abcess, 1 tumor, metasteses, hematoma, or MS plaque...white area is liquid/area of necrosis...def still some good tissue in there*** get biopsy**
What brain tumor has the best survival rate? Very good survival rates (3)?

What two have the worst in adults? in children?
Meningiomas
Astocytomas, Hemangioblastomas, and Schwannomas

glioblastoma and metasteses

children = medulloblastoma
On MRIs, which are demarcated and non-parenchymally invasive (2)? which are invasive and pervasive?
Demarcated= metasteses and meningiomas
Pervasive/invasive= glioblastoma
Is external injury associated with significant brain injury?
What kind of injuries are associated with linear fractures (falling backwards)?
Not really
See focal deficits or maybe epidural hematoma if hit middle meningeal artery
Epidural Hematoma caused by?
Subdural hematoma caused by? what part of brain most likely to hit?
laceration of middle meningeal artery- clinically lucid after trauma, then rapidly deteriorates

lacertation/occlusion of bridging veins- mostly in posterior 2/3s of brain
Coup vs. Contracoup lesions? types of linear acceleration forces? examples
coup- whacked and force felt at point of impact
contracoup- whacked and force is transmitted 180 degrees...i.e fall back and have deficits in frontal lobe
Rotational/Angular Acceleration injuries? occurs in whom? what gets hit? how diffuse?
no head/skull damage, but destroys the corpus callosum

frequently seen in helmeted motorcyclists
How does a gliding contusion injury occur?
destroying the white matter when shaking an infant
What experienced with hyperextension of the neck?
primary brainstem trauma... knocks out upper pons and puts you in PVS- vegetative when knock out parts of the Reticular Activating system
What do you suspect when a child's head is subject to rotational forces like whiplash?
CHILD ABUSE